Home » Three months of Provisional INA Government in Manipur and contributions of local population

Three months of Provisional INA Government in Manipur and contributions of local population

by Rinku Khumukcham
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By – Laiphrakpam Nishikanta Singh
LT. General (Retd.), Indian Army &
Former Chairperson, Manipur Public Service Commission

 

Pre War Situation of Manipur:

On Sunday 10th May 1942, Imphal was bombed by Japanese aircraft and Manipur became involved in World War-II. The second bombing was on Saturday the 16th of May 1942. In 1942, the Japanese Army had driven the British, Indian, and Chinese troops out of Burma. British and Indian troops had occupied Imphal. However, the Japanese dropped the idea of further advance due to difficult terrain and supply considerations. The Japanese commander in Burma, Lieutenant General Shojiro Iida, felt that it would be unwise to continue the advance, right into India even after the rains. Thus further advance was paused. Let us examine the situation in Manipur post the aerial bombing
There were chaos and a pandemonium nearing anarchy. The panic-stricken population started fleeing from the capital to remote areas. Even, the State Durbar (Assembly) shifted to Kwakeithel. All these resulted in an uncontrolled price rise. Essential items were brought from Silchar mostly on foot. Besides, 2 lakh refugees fled the Japanese occupation of Burma. The Allies, especially the British began concentrating troops in Imphal, basically to use it as a forward base for the battles in Burma, to give a battle against the Japanese onslaught, or even use it as a launching pad for a counteroffensive. Thus the depopulation of Imphal was liked by the British. General Slim also eventually quartered in Imphal.
Being a princely state, no political activities were allowed in Manipur. Even the Congress party was not allowed to function and Gandhiji was prevented from entering Manipur. Nikhil Hindu Manipuri Mahasabha was the only proactive political party functioning at that time.

The Arrival of the Indian National Army & Activities of Nikhil Manipuri Mahasabha
Netaji sought the assistance of the people of Manipur. He sent a message asking the people of Manipur to help the INA and Japanese Army who had crossed into Manipur. This message from INA camp at Chamol was brought by a person named Lungdim and handed over to Dr. Gulapchan Singh, who was the then medical officer at Sugnu. It was then given to ThokchomAngou Singh of Singjamei, Imphal of Nikhil Hindu Manipuri Mahasabha. They had similar ideas for independence and welcomed the appeal of Netaji.
Accordingly, two members of the Mahasabha, LaishramJogeshor Singh, and HawaibamRanbir Singh went to Jiribam and organized a meeting in the house of MeitramKanglenjao. A resolution was passed for receiving the INA and Japanese as liberators on the condition that Manipur is declared independent from the British and be recognized as a liberated part of the Indian subcontinent. Accordingly, one member, K. Kunjabihari Singh was tasked to establish secret contact with Japanese monks in the Mahabali forest, right in the heart of Imphal. Eventually, some leaders of Mahasabha and the PrajaSammelani (a newly floated party led by Irabot) joined INA on their arrival in Manipur. These included ThokchomAngou Singh, PotsangbamTomal Singh, LiashramKanhai Singh, LongjamBijoy Singh, KiyamGopal Singh, Mairembam Koireng Singh, HemamNilamani Singh, LaiphrakpamSanamba Singh, and LaishramGuna Singh. Most of them led a unique lifestyle wearing khadi dresses etc.
In mid-1942, L. Jogeshor Singh was arrested for transmitting information about Kumbhirgram airport to the Japanese. Meanwhile, the State Police began rounding up the members of the Nikhil Hindu Manipuri Mahasabha. Many fled to Burma and joined the INA. Eventually, all those Manipuris who fled to Burma accompanied the INA back to Manipur. The local INA members and sympathizers were under surveillance by the military. Many were arrested and lodged in the Langthabal Military jail which virtually turned into an interrogation center. The inmates were brutally tortured. MaisnamGopal Singh of Lamshang and Angou Singh of Lamlong (Khurai) were inhumanely tortured and released when they were about to die and died soon after their release.

The Aim, Planning, and Preparations for Attack on Imphal
When Japan joined the war, there was no plan to extend it to Indian soil. But seeing the momentum of success and inability of the Allies to check the Japanese onslaught and also based on the intelligence reports that the British forces in Manipur and Chittagong were unprepared, Japan started considering the capture of these two towns. It was appreciated that the capture of Imphal would rob the British of a suitable base for a counteroffensive in Burma, which was already with Japan. It resulted in the aerial attack on Imphal on 10 May 1942, as already brought out above. But this was not followed up because of Japanese inhibitions of stretching too far especially the logistic system.
Meanwhile, the Allies exploited the Japanese indecisiveness. They prepared and strengthened operation and logistic capability to hold Imphal and also support the operations in Burma. During 1942-43, the Allies improved the lines of communication to Assam. Many logistically important airstrips were laid in Manipur and its neighbouring areas. Imphal-Kohima-Dimapur road was substantially improved, the rudimentary Silchar-Imphal road was also repaired and a road from Imphal to Tiddim was also constructed. The United States Army, with Indian labourers, also constructed several airbases in Assam for flying supplies to China. This air route, which crossed several mountain ranges, was known as the Hump. The Americans also began constructing the Ledo road, to connect Assam with China.
In July 1943, NetajiSubhash Chandra Bose arrived in Singapore. Netaji passionately insisted on the capture of Imphal or Chittagong or both, at the earliest, when the Allied forces were least expecting it. Netaji appreciated capture of these could trigger an Indian revolution. He planned that once Imphal is liberated, he would install on the Indian soil an effective Provisional Government of Azad Hind. This would bring more Indians to join the anti-British revolt. On 21st October 1943, the Provisional Government of the Azada Hind was formed under NetajiSubhash Chandra Bose. On 23rd October, Netaji declared war on Britain and the USA.
The above insistence of Netaji, along with the fact that the Allies could anytime be launching a counteroffensive into Burma, prompted the Japanese Military Strategist to decide on a pre-emptive offensive on India both trigger an Indian revolution and also blunt a British counteroffensive. Further Japanese 15th Army Commander, Lt General Mutaguchi, felt that the capture of Imphal could be exploited by advancing to the Brahmaputra River valley which will cut the Allied supply lines to their front in northern Burma and China.
Netaji also discussed the nuances of cooperation between the Japanese and the INA forces with General Kawabe, Commander-in-Chief of the Burma Area Army. He insisted that both should enjoy equal status in all respects. They also agreed that the territories liberated on the Indian soil must be handed over to Major-General AC Chatterjee, Governor-designate of the liberated areas.
Unfortunately, the Japanese High Command at Tokyo took a too long time to make a final decision. This delay gave more time to the British forces to prepare. The Japanese decision taken on 12th August 1943, was revealed to Netaji only on 26th August. Further, the order for the offensive on Imphal was issued only on 10th January 1944 from Tokyo. The commencement of the operations was further delayed due to late in the arrival of the 15 Japanese Division from Siam. Ultimately on 10th February General Kawabe issued the final orders to the 15th Army commanded by Lt. Gen. Mutaguchi with a rider that the campaign be completed within a month because thereafter monsoon was to commence.
Meanwhile, the Allies were also preparing for going on the offensive themselves in early 1944. The Indian 15 Corps was advancing in the coastal Arakan Province, while the British 4 Corps had deployed two Indian infantry divisions almost to the Chindwin River at Tamu and Tiddim. These two divisions were widely separated and vulnerable to being isolated.
The Imphal offensive, Operation ‘U -Go’, as it was called, was to be launched in March 1944. It was an infantry-based operation but Moltke’s theory of operational art was applied. The basic concept of operation was two division-size forces advance from East and Southern axes while one divisional size force goes further north and cuts of the British main artery of Imphal-Dimapur line of communication at Kohima and exploit up to Dimapur railhead. This main attack was to be preceded by a diversionary attack in the Arakan, codenamed ‘Ha-Go’, in the first week of February. This was to draw in the Allied reserves from Assam and also create the impression that the Japanese intended to attack Bengal through Chittagong. Allocation force and task are as given below:-
1. 33rd Infantry Division under Lt General Yanagida to attack Imphal from the South.
2. 15th Infantry Division under Lieutenant-General Yamauchi attack Imphal from the North.
3. Yamamoto Force, formed from units detached from the 33rd and 15th Divisions under Major-General Yamamoto, supported by tanks and heavy artillery, attack Imphal from the East.
4. A separate subsidiary operation, the 31st Infantry Division under Lieutenant-General Sato to isolate Imphal by capturing Kohima, exploit to the Allied supply base at Dimapur railhead.
Japanese generals had some reservations about the battle-worthiness of the INA forces. But they finally agreed to the participation of INA in these operations as Netaji insisted that the battles of Imphal and Kohima would represent the crucial battles for the liberation of India and therefore that, not only the INA should spearhead the attack, but the first drop of bloodshed should be that of an INA soldier. Altogether some 8,800 INA combatants took part in the offensive. The INA formations which participated are given below:-
1. 1st INA Division (Gandhi Brigade) under Maj. General Md. ZamanKiyani along Tamu-Pallel axis
2. 2nd INA Division (Subhas Brigade) under Maj. General Shah Nawaz Khan along Ukhrul.
3. Special Task Force (Intelligence Group) commanded by Colonel S.A. Malik along Tiddim-Moirang
4. The Azad Brigade commanded by Colonel Gulzara Singh, at Tamu-Pallel sector.

British Forces
The14th Army under Lieutenant General Slim was overall responsible for the Burma campaign. 4 Corps, commanded by Lieutenant General GeoffryScoones was at Imphal. Disposition of formations are given below:-
1. 20th Indian Infantry Division under Major-General Gracey was at Tamu.
2. 17th Indian Infantry Division under Major-General ‘Punch’ Cowan was at Tiddim, the division had two brigades only.
3. 23rd Indian Infantry Division under Major-General Roberts in reserve was in and around Imphal.
4. 50th Indian Parachute Brigade under Brigadier Maxwell Hope-Thompson was north of Imphal, undergoing jungle training.
5. 254th Indian Tank Brigade under Brigadier R. L. Scoones was in and around Imphal.

Initial Battles
The Indo-Japanese troops crossed the River Chindwin on 8 March. But Scoones gave his forward divisions orders to withdraw to Imphal only on 13 March. The 15th Japanese Division of Lt. General Yamauchi moved towards Tamu and Ukhrul in two columns and captured Ukhrul. They advanced towards the Imphal-Dimapur road for their onward attack on Imphal from the northwest. 20th Indian Division at Tamu fell back to Pallel without difficulty because two battalions of Yamamoto Force were delayed in northern Burma. The 1st INA Division under Major General M.Z. Kiyani also joined the Imphal campaign and fought with the Yammoto force at the Pallel sector. Simultaneously, the 31st Japanese Division commanded by Lt. General Sato advanced to Kohima through Homalin and Jessami. Meanwhile, Major General Shah Nawaz Khan’s 2nd INA Division reached Ukhrul.
Lt. General Yanagida’s 33rd Division moved from the South along Tiddim Road. The Indo-Japanese columns advanced very fast with heavy guns and tanks. 17th British Division could not resist. On the Japanese left flank, the INA’s Subhas Brigade, led by Shah Nawaz Khan, reached the edge of the Chin Hills below Tiddim and Fort White at the end of March. From this position, the 2nd Battalion of INA sent troops to relieve Japanese forces at Falam and Hakha, from where they sent out patrols and laid ambushes for the Chin guerrillas operating under the British and took some prisoners. During the early part of the offensive, the Bahadur Group was successful in inducing British Indian soldiers to desert. A force under Khan’s Adjutant, Mahboob “Boobie” Ahmed, attacked and captured the hilltop fortress of KlangKlang. The 3rd Battalion of INA meanwhile moved to the Fort White-Tongzang area. The Allied forces retreated vacating the entire area right up to Potshangbam due to the pressure of the advancing Indo-Japanese columns. On 11 April 1944, the British withdrew to Phubala and Ningthoukhong as the 17th British Division occupied defences at general area Bishnupur.
On 13 April, when the British vacated from their positions at Moirang to Potsangbam, there was jubilation among the local people of Moirang as they knew that INA forces will be arriving soon. Some leaders including M. Koireng Singh spent a sleepless night on the 13 April, hiding under the MoirangLamkhai Bridge and watching out eagerly the British 17th Division retreating from Tronglaobi. The following day, the Indo and Japanese forces reached Tronglaobi and occupied the British camp. L. Sanaba Singh, M. Koireng Singh, and K. Kangken Singh went to Tronglaobi and welcomed the INA forces and invited them for the formal flag-hoisting on the mainland Indian soil on the 14th April 1944 at MoirangKangla (the ancient seat of power).

Liberation and Tri-Color Hoisting
On 14 April 1944, on the auspicious ‘Chairoaba’ day( local year ending ceremony), INA troops led by Colonel S.A. Mallick, along with Captain Ito of the Japanese 33rd Mountain Gun Regiment arrived at Moirang. In a brief ceremony, the national tri-colour flag of INA with the ‘Springing Tiger’ as emblem was hoisted in the evening, on the same day at the historic MoirangKangla. This is the first time that the tri-colour was ceremonially hoisted on the mainland of India. More than half of the present Manipur, measuring nearly 10000 square kilometers of India, for the first time, became a liberated area. This liberated area consisted of up to Pallel in the south-east: Kameng, Sekmai, Kangpokpi, and Kanglatongbi in the northeast; Torbung and Moirang in the south-west; Bishnupur and Irengbam/Lokpaching(Red Hill) in the heart of the valley. Only a small portion of the Imphal Valley and Tamenglong could not be liberated. This vast area was under the control of the INA for nearly 3 months, till the INA withdrew on 15 July 1944. After the flag hoisting ceremony, the local people presented the arms and ammunitions, abandoned by the British which has been collected by them, to the INA force commander. This was a very proud and happy moment for INA, its Supreme Commander NetajiSubhas Chandra Bose, and the people of Manipur.
Colonel Mallick addressed the gathering on the occasion. The gist of Colonel Mallick’s address is: The Provisional Government of Azad Hind had declared war on England and America with a commitment to complete the creation of Greater East Asia and bring welfare to the people of India by defeating Anglo-American forces. The Indian National Army with the support of the Japanese Government has now entered into the sacred soil of India’s mainland. In the course of its struggle for the liberation of the people of India from British slavery, we have now reached Moirang, the ancient citadel of the Manipur kingdom. Our commitment is to march to Delhi and unfurl the Tri-Colour flag there at LalKilla. Many had died on our way to reach here and many would die on our way to Delhi. However, the expulsion of the enemy from the sacred soil of India is a must for us. We shall fight. We appeal to the brave and patriotic people of Manipur to support and provide supplies. Nothing about us should be told to the enemy; everything about the enemy must be informed to us. This is how people can contribute to our single-minded mission of expelling the Imperialist forces from India. Freedom of India is very near; near at hand; we shall win. There would be progress and prosperity for the people of India after it. So give us your helping hands in our collective efforts of freeing India free from slavery.
Finally, Colonel S.A. Malik’s Bahadur Group (Special Task Force-Intelligence) of the INA, fighting with the 214 Japanese Regiment of the 33rd Division, established its Headquarters at Moirang on 14 April 1944. Thus Moirang was the seat of the Provisional Government of Azad Hind Fauz from where it administered all these liberated areas of Manipur which was nearly 10000 sq km for all these three months. The people of Manipur extended full support and cooperation to the INA, supplying ration, donations, and other materials.
Many Manipuris joined the INA and post-independence, approximately 200 such persons of Manipur were awarded freedom fighter pension by the Government. 17 important INA freedom-fighters of Manipur, including two women, are Mairembam Koireng Singh, HemamNilamani Singh, KiyamGopal Singh, LaiphrakpamSanaba Singh, PotsangbamTomal Singh, ThokchomAngou Singh, SarungbamIbohal Singh, Imphal, MutumAmuba Singh, LaishramIrabot Singh, KhumbongmayumJugeshor Singh, LaishramKanhai Singh, L. Bijoy Singh, I Tombi Singh, W. Gyaneshwar Singh, MoirangthemJatra Singh, M. Randhoni Devi and O. Keina Devi. The last two joined the Jhansi Rani Regiment. The other members were attached to the intelligence group of the INA. They not only help in gathering intelligence but organizing the much-needed supply and casualty evacuation. They organized a human chain supply system for Indo-Japanese forces fighting at Potsangbam and Bishenpur. Elsewhere the locals arranged rice and other provisions.

So Near Yet So Far: Stalemate
The Allies took up defences in the foothills surrounding Imphal valley. By the beginning of April, the momentum of the Indo-Japanese forces was high, attacking Imphal from three directions. Imphal and adjacent areas became a battleground. The attack from the South, aimed at capturing Bishenpur, succeeded in cutting off the old Cachar Road. Considering the precarious situation, the British had earlier strengthen the 17th Division in Bishenpur and surrounding areas with 23rd Division and also part of the 20th Division. A column of Indo-Japanese forces advanced through the hills to the west of Bishenpur. Due to lack of supply, they halted at MaibamLokpaChing or The Red Hill, a hillock located on the outskirts of Imphal, North of Bishnupur, barely 10 km from the airport on the Tiddim Road only 10 miles. They succeeded in cutting off the British but suffered heavy casualties due to British artillery fire. The main Indo-Japanese advance along Tiddim-Imphal road was halted in Potsangbam, 2 miles south of Bishenpur, as troops of the 17th Indian Division had recouped and rejoined the battle. Meanwhile Yanagida, the Japanese division commander was relieved of command at the end of the month as he was too cautious. The battles in and around the Bishnupur-Moirang sector and old Cachar road were one of the fiercest and continued from March till their retreat in July 1944.
In the East, the opening of the only metalled Imphal-Tamu road was vital for the attacking forces to allow tanks and heavy artillery to reach for the main battle of Imphal. On 4 April, Yamamoto Force attacked 20th Division at Shenam saddle, a few miles north of the saddle was Palel airfield, one of the only two all-weather airfields in the plain. From 8 to 22 April, there was heavy fighting for five peaks that dominated the road. The Japanese breakthrough was lost to the Allies’ counter-attacks. Casualties were heavy on both sides. Having failed to cut off the enemy, Yamamoto sent a major raiding force North to raid Palel airfield. The INA’s Gandhi Brigade or 2nd Guerrilla Regiment, of two battalions led by InayatKiyani, took part in this attack. On 28 April, they attacked Palel. They tried to induce some Indian defenders to surrender, but the defenders rallied after initial hesitation. Another INA group carried out demolitions around Palel but withdrew after they could not link with Japanese units. The Gandhi Brigade was short of rations, having brought forward only one day’s supplies, and lost 250 soldiers mainly due to artillery fire after they pulled back from Palel.
In the North, the Japanese 15th Division cut off Imphal. They captured the British supply dump at Kanglatongbi which had been emptied. They also captured Nungshigum Ridge which overlooked the Koirengai airstrip at Imphal. This was a major threat to the 4 Corps. On 13 April, the 5th Indian Division counter-attacked, supported by massive air support, massed artillery, and the M3 Lee tanks of B Squadron of the 3rd Carabiniers. The attackers also lost heavily, every officer of the Carabiniers and the attacking infantry ie 1st Bn, the 17th Dogra Regiment were killed or wounded.
Thus, Imphal was invested by the Indo-Japanese from three sides, cutting off all the three lines of communication and a fall of Imphal was expected any time. It was not generally known in India that around that time that Netaji had coined the immortal slogan of ‘Jai Hind’ and ‘Delhi Chalo’ due to British propaganda, disinformation, and censorship. In a broadcast over the Azad Hind Radio on 6th July 1944, Netaji addressed: “Father of our Nation! In this holy war of India’s liberation, we ask for your blessings and good wishes.”

Stalemate
In May, there was a stalemate, all attacks by the Indo-Japanese forces had ceased. Allies’ counter-attacks were successfully blocked by the Indo–Japanese forces. But the Allies had complete air superiority as the Japanese air force was diverted to operations in the Pacific. The last major effort by the Japanese Army Air Force had been over the Arakan in February and March.
Unfortunately, that year there was an early monsoon. By mid-May, the Indo -Japanese forces were in great difficulty due to a shortage of ammunition, rations, medicine, and other essential supply. Malaria was rampant. The Indo-Japanese forces also lacked air support. On the other hand, the British were reasonably comfortable with their logistics. They received fresh reinforcements. With complete air superiority, powerful tanks, and heavy artillery they blunted any offensive action by the Indo-Japanese forces. The Japanese 31st Division which had so valiantly fought at Kohima could no longer sustain. They started retreating by the night of 30th May. Shah Nawaz Khan’s No.2 INA Division which was rushed from Arakans to Ukhrul Sector could not influence much. Khan met Sato near Sangsak and was advised to fall back. Even while retreating, they were harassed by the enemy throughout. The bloodiest battle of this sector was fought at Sangsak.
In the Pallel too, the Yamamoto force lost most of its forces in the Tengnoupal area and could not take full advantage of the surprise attack upon Pallel airfield by Major General M.Z. Kiyani’s No. 1, INA Division. They could not proceed beyond Pallel.

The Final Attempt
The Indo-Japanese forces made a last attempt in Jun 1944 as they were still not prepared to call off the campaign, even in the light of all those reverses. Major General Tanaka took over the 33rd Japanese Division from Lt. General Yanagida in June 1944. He immediately started preparing for a fresh attack on Imphal by using all available resources and issued a Special Order on the 2nd June 1944 in the name of the Japanese Emperor. Monsoon had already set in, thus weather-wise it was not suitable for operations. The Japanese HQ at TokpaKhul realized that the Imphal campaign had failed due to the underestimation of the fighting strength and defences of the enemy. In the Bishenpur sector, the strength of the 214th Regiment which started with 4,000 men was reduced to only 460 of which only half were battle-worthy on the eve of their final withdrawal in July 1944.
Many died not merely in battle action, but due to malnutrition, starvation, and disease like malaria, dysentery. Eye-witness local population of Manipur told stories famished Indo-Japanese soldiers surviving on edible jungle roots, more like the dead than alive, during those critical days. And many wounded and captured soldiers preferred to commit Hara-Kiri, rather than falling into enemy hands. Ultimately the Japanese army realized that despite braving all these difficulties, the five-month-long Manipur campaign was lost. In the face of the imminent heavy casualty, monsoon, and the impossible chance for any further operation with the depleted strength, General Mutaguchi, Commander of the 15th Japanese Army gave orders on the 20th July 1944 to all the fighting troops operating in Manipur to retreat.
Thus ended the five-month-old campaign. For the Japanese ‘Imphal’ remained the forbidden fruit. It proved elusive exactly like the Japanese proverbial saying ‘A flower on the Lofty Heights’ which means “Something which, though very tempting, is after all beyond one’s reach.”

Unique place of ‘Imphal’ in the Freedom Struggle
Thus Imphal has a unique place in the Indian Freedom Struggle because the Manipur Campaign turned out to be a decisive factor in the fight for Indian independence. Many INA officers and soldiers belonging to various linguistic groups at home and abroad who were Hindus, Muslims, Sikhs, Christians, etc were killed and their blood flowed together and intermingled to ultimately become one ie an Indian- at that a proactive Indian, rather than a passive one. This was the lesson most distinctively taught by the great NetajiSubhas Chandra Bose. He made all passive Indians truly patriots who would lay down life for the nation. Irrespective of which region they hailed, or which language they spoke or which religious faith they practice or which strata of society they belong to, he insisted they were all not only fellow Indians but members of the same family, fighting for a cause – the greatest cause of ‘freedom of one and all.’
From April to July 1944, Moirang and the surrounding areas of the INA Headquarters were declared as ‘enemy zone’ by the British. K.Gopal Singh, L. Sanaba Singh, H. Nilamani Singh, and M Koireng Singh of Moirang were declared as traitors by the British Political Agent in Manipur. Order of shoot-at-sight was given. Further, all 17 members of the Mahasabha were black-listed. Scorched earth policy was extended to all villages from Torbung to Ningthoukhong area for the first time in Manipur in the last part of March 1944. Areas from Moirang to Ningthoukhong were heavily bombed by the British, many civilians were killed and injured; almost all the trees and bamboos were uprooted. In Moirang more than 1,000 houses were set ablaze.
Many patients died and got injured in the bombing. Shri H. Nilamani Singh, one of the INA members suffered a minor injury in his hand. On their way to Rangoon, during the retreat, his only son of late K. Tomba Singh died at Enjung Camp on 17 August 1944. His last rites were performed with full military honour on the bank of Myantha.
After the surrender of Japan to the Allied forces in the middle of August 1945, the INA at Rangoon had to surrender. The INA members from Manipur in Rangoon were also arrested and put in Rangoon Central Jail. They were brought to Calcutta and released after detention and interrogation. They were received by the INA Reception Committee and stayed at Calcutta. They returned to Manipur on 06 May 1946. They were asked to report once a week to Imphal Police Station.
Thus ended the effort to liberate India. But this awakening by INA led to mutiny and other forms of insubordinations amongst the British Indian forces. This scared the British and they realized they cannot subdue and hold on to India, as, after World War II their military power was in no position to suppress the proactive Indians. Hence the effort by INA hastened up the departure of the British from India.
(This article is written for incorporating it as chapter in the forthcoming book on Manipur and Second World War which is to be brought out very soon)

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