Home » Glossary of Indian Music (Part – 04)

Glossary of Indian Music (Part – 04)

by Rinku Khumukcham
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Collection by:
Gurumayum Shivachandra Sharma
Cultural Activist
1. Thaath: In North Indian Classical Music or Hindustani Classical Music, the parent scale of every Raag which are arrange in the ascending order where all the Raags are set up together in a group, that group is known as the Thaath. It is also known as Mela in South Indian Classical Music or Carnatic Music. According to the theory of Pandit Vishnu Narayana Bhatkhande, there are Ten 10 Thaaths, namely, a) Bilawal Thaath, b) Kalyan Thaath, c) Khamaj Thaath, d) Bheirava Thaath, e) Kafi Thaath, f) Asawari Thaath, g) Marwa Thaath, h) Poorvi Thaath, i) Bheiravi Thaath and j) Todi Thaath respectively.
2. Raag: According to Indian Classical Music’s theory, a melodic framework for improvisation similar to a melodic mode in Indian Classical Music is called the Raag. So, it is truly a group of Sangeet Swaras that make pleasant to hear and joyful. There are numbers of Raags in Indian music, some of them includes Raag Yaman (Eman/Kalyan), Raag Bhupali, Raag Malkauns, Raag Bageshri, Raag Durga, Raag Bilashkhani Todi, Raag Multani, Raag Basanta, Raag Desh, Raag Gouda Malhar, etc,.
3. Ashraya Raag: In Indian Classical Music, those Raags which their names are introduce from their parent scale or Thaath are known as the Ashraya Raag. According to the theory of Pandit Vishnu Narayana Bhatkhande, since there are Ten 10 Thaaths in Indian Classical Music, there are also Ten 10 Ashraya Raags, namely, a) Raag Bilawal, b) Raag Yaman/Kalyan, c) Raag Khamaj, d) Raag Bheirava, e) Raag Kafi, f) Raag Ashawari, g) Raag Marwa, h) Raag Poorvi, i) Raag Bheiravi and j) Raag Todi respectively.
4. Vadi Swara: In Indian Classical Music, the principal or the predominant Swara of a Raag is known as the Vadi Swara. It is also compare as the King of the notes within the Raag. For example, the Vadi Swara of Raag Yaman is Ga (Gandhar).
5. Samvadi Swara: In Indian Classical Music, the Sangeet Swara of special significant like the ministry to the monarch as the second dominant Swara next to Vadi Swara of a Raag is called the Samvadi Swara. For example, the Samvadi Swara of Raag Yaman is Ni (Nishad).
6. Anuvadi Swara: In Indian Classical Music, the remaining Sangeet Swaras using in the Aroha and Abroha other than the Vadi Swara and Samvadi Swara are known as the Anuvadi Swaras. For example, the Anuvadi Swaras of Raag Yaman are Sa (Shadaj), Re (Reshava), ma’ (Madhyam Tivra), Pa (Panchama) and Dha (Dheiwata) respectively.
7. Vivadi Swara: In Indian Classical Music, the Sangeet Swaras that are not allow to use and also not a part of the Aroha or Abroha in a Raag are the Vivadi Swaras. If we use such Swaras accidentally, the Raag will naturally divert to another Raag, therefore, they are also known as the enemy notes of a Raag. For example, the Vivadi Swaras of Raag Yaman are re (Reshava komal), ga (Gandhar komal), Ma (Madhyam), dha (Dheiwata komal) and ni (Nishad komal) respectively.
8. Pakad: In Indian Classical Music, the generally accepted musical phrase to identify and reflect the essence of a particular Raag is called the Pakad. Here, it contains the melodic theme of the Raag. And, also a person can easily identify a Raag when he or she on listening the Pakad, so it is commonly known as the catching notes of a Raag. For example, the Pakad of Raag Yaman is NiReGa, Sa, Pama’Ga, Re, NiReGaRe, NiRe, Sa.
9. Gayan Samaya: The word Gayan means singing and the word Samaya means the proper time or the right momemt for doing anything. So, literally in Indian Classical Music, the right time to perform a Raag according to its composition is called Gayan Samaya. According to this time theory, there are Eight 8 time segments in a day, they are, a)
Purvanha (6 am. to 9 am.), b) Madhyanha (9 am. to 12 pm. or noon), c) Aparahna (12 pm. to 3 pm.), d) Sayankala (3 pm. to 6 pm.), e) Pradosha (6 pm. to 9 pm.), f) Nishitha (9 pm. to 12 am. or midnight), g) Triyama (12 am. to 3 am.), h) Usha (3 am. to 6 am.) respectively. For example, the Gayan Samaya of Raag Yaman is the Pradosha or the Early night (6 pm. to 9 pm.).
10. Samprakritik Raag: In Indian Classical Music, the Raags which are similar in nature and Swaras but different in some features like in Aroha-Abroha, Vadi-Samvadi, Nayas Swaras, Gayan Samaya, etc,. are generally known as the Samprakritik Raag. For example, the Samprakritik Raags of Raag Yaman are Yaman Kalyan, Sudha Kalyan, Shyam Kalyan, etc,.

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