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Items filtered by date: Friday, 10 May 2019 - Imphal Times

‘Person who help accident victim assaulted and harassed by police’

IT News 

Imphal, May10,

A person who had help an accident victim today alleged that he was harassed by police by summoning time and again to the police station regarding the case.

“People fear to help unknown persons who are injured and left alone on the roadside” said Chitra, General Secretary of Lamboi Khongnangkhong Apunba Nupi Lup in a meeting with media persons today.  

Speaking at the press meet today at Emoinu Sanglen, Lamboi Khongnangmakhong Chitra said that a person of Lamboi Khongnangkhong identified as Kangjam Ratankumar was picked for appearing as witness and was assaulted by the police. She expressed strong condemnation terming the act of the police as inhumane. 

She added that similar incident also happened in 2018 where they help a non local and leading to spending huge amount of money from their side.

Martin, the person who helped the accident victim was also reportedly harassed by the police by summoning him time and again. 

Talking to media person he said that he was even charged of murdering the victim whom he helped.

“On what charges that I am being accused of the accident when I don’t know the victim and when I was only trying to help him to save his life”, Martin said.

Talking about the incident the victim identified as Kangjam Ratankumar said that on the dawn of 9th April 2019 around 1.30 am, an unknown person was found lying on the roadside near his shop as told by one younger person named as Martin who lived in the rent. The unknown person was identified as Ayekpam Bedajit son of Ayekpam Merajao from Tayenjam. After informing to the family Bedajit was rushed to a hospital by Martin. Later, the injured person Bedajit succumbed to injury. After few days, he gave statement to the police as witnessed of that day, he added. 

However a police summon was sent to him yesterday from Lamphel Police station to appear on 10th of May. But unfortunately three police came to his shop yesterday and asked to go to police station to talk about few matters without any arrest memo.  

Ratan further said that he was again interrogated by the police but he talked all about the incident that he witnessed. He added that few women identified as JAC of the deceased including the wife charged him that it was a murder by them but he refused the charged alleged against him.

Later the JAC informed the police to beat him to confess that he and Martin murdered Bedajit.

Even after beating and interrogating he told the same thing what he has witnessed on that day.

Afterwards he was set free from the police station after meeting with additional SP and making his statement about the day of the incident. 

Ratan further said that because of the orders of the family members of the deceased he was assaulted and interrogated to confess what he hasn’t done. He added that police long with the family tried to frame charge against him.

Ratan concluded that he will find it hard to help any unknown persons who needed help in any places.

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Court order postponement of MPSC exam

IT News

Imphal, May 10,

Prelims examination of the Civil Service Examination for the year 2019 conducted by the Manipur Public Service Commission which was set to be conducted on date 12 May is likely to be postponed after court intervention.

The source added that the examination is being postponed as the MPSC still has no proper rules and regulations laid down for conducting the MPSCCCE. Also, that the MPSC should follow the previous order laid down by Justice Kotishor in 2017.

A group of Civil Service aspirants filed a writ petition against the absence of controller of examinations and absence of proper rules and regulations. Justice Lanusungkum Jamir, after hearing the writ petition, gave an order today to postpone the Preliminary exam 2019 and that proper rules and regulations should be set before conducting the exam. Also, that Controller of examinations should be appointed.

 The last controversial exam MPSCCCE Mains 2016 was conducted without proper rules and regulations, and that there was “no Controller of examination”, it added.

The secretary was taking charge as the “Controller” , which was against the rules.

Now, MPSC attempted to forcefully conduct the MPSCCCE 2019 , with the same procedure as that of 2016 exam.

Another source said that official order for postponement of the exam may be available today.

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Tiddim road blocked for 3 hours after a bomb like object was found at Nambol

IT News

Imphal, May 10,

Vehicular traffic along Tiddim Road at Nambol area was halted from 7.30 to 10:30 am today morning after a container suspected to be bomb was found at Nambol Thongkha.  The suspicious container was found near a black colour two wheeler Activa vehicle bearing registration number MN07S- 73, which is reported to have been parking at the spot since the last 3 days. Assam Rifles and State police which rushed to the spot stopped all traffic at both end to ensure safety of the general public for around 3 hours. Later, Manipur Bomb Disposal Squad which arrived at the scene checks and found it to be a hoax one. The plastic container was found with a set of wire and a mobile hand set.

Police picked up the Activa vehicle.  

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1 died, another injured after building collapse at Paona Keithel near Polo Ground

IT News

Imphal, May 10,

A person died and another injured after a building in the south of Polo Ground today collapse today evening.

The cause of the collapse is not known as of now but it is suspected that the building might have crumbled as the structures are outdated.

The building is located at the north of the MPP Office and the area is crowded most of the time. Details are being awaited.

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Maoist revolution all over the world is advancing: Maoist

IT News
Imphal, May 10,

Recalling the significance of the May, Maoist Communist Party Manipur, an armed rebel group operating in the region today said that fifteen Maoist parties from all over the world have released a joint statement, giving the message of revolution to the people on occasion of the May Day.
“May Day of 2019 marks an important day for the Maoist parties and organisations”, the statement of the Manipur Maoist said.
It said that other than these fifteen parties, Latin America-based Maoist parties have also released a similar joint statement on this May Day.
These two joint statements mark an important step in the World Proletarian Revolution. Maoist Communist Party, Manipur (Manipur Maoist) along with other fourteen parties released a joint statement called “Red Proletarian International”. The other fourteen organisations  are: 1) Committee for Building the Maoist Communist Party, Galicia,  Spanish State, 2) Communist (Maoist) Party of Afghanistan, 3) Communist Party of Nepal (Revolutionary Maoist), 4) Communist Party of Turkey/Marxist-Leninist, 5) Democracy and Class Struggle, British State, 6) Elkadehin Party, Tunisie, 7) Maoist Communist Party of France, 8) Maoist Communist Party of Italy, 9) Maoist Revolutionary League- Sri Lanka, 10) New Communist Party, Tunisia, 11) Red Youth of Germany, 12) Revolutionary Communist Party – Canada, 13) Union Obrera Comunista, Colombia and 14) Workers’ Voice, Malaysia. On the other hand, twelve Maoist parties including the Latin American Maoist parties have released a joint statement called “Dare to Struggle, Dare to Win.” The parties are: 1) Communist Party of Ecuador (Red Sun), Ecuador, 2) Peru Peoples Movement (Reorganization Committee), 3) Communist Party of Brazil (Red Faction), 4) Red Faction of the Communist Party of Chile, 5) Reconstitution of Communist Party of Columbia, 6) Revolutionary Nucleus for the Reconstitution of the Communist Party of Mexico, 7) Communist party of Turkey/ Marxist-Leninist, 8) Maoist Communist Party of French State, 9) Red Flag Collective, 10) Committee for the Foundation of (Maoist) Communist Party of Austria, 11) Tjen Folket- Communist League Norway and 12) Committee to reconstitute the Communist Party of USA.
The Manipur Maoist said that the two statements released on 2019’s May Day clearly indicate that a united Maoist movement at the international level can be built up. Maoist Communist Party of Manipur firmly believes in it. After the death of the revolutionary leader, Comrade Charu Mazumdar, Communist Party of India (Maoist), taking his ideology forward, has made considerable advances in the People’s War. Similarly, following the footsteps of Siraj Sikdar, comrades in Bangladesh are preparing for a Maoist revolution in Bangladesh. In Turkey, comrades are advancing the Maoist revolution bringing forth the legacy of comrade Ibrahim Kaypakkaya. Similarly, armed with Gonzalo’s legacy Maoist parties in Latin America are preparing for a Maoist revolution. This marks a considerable advancement in the World Proletarian Revolution. Maoist Communist Party, Manipur is not only continuing the legacy of Lamyanba Hijam Irabot, but also developing it according to the changing conditions and preparing for a new revolution in Manipur.  
“We have a lot to learn from these leaders and we must also develop what they have taught us and advance the Maoist revolution in our own respective countries. It is the responsibility of all the Maoist parties in the world. Today, Maoist parties in Latin America, Europe and Asia have been able to successfully develop the Maoist revolutions in these places” it added.
It further stated that beginning from 2019, all the Maoist parties of the world are building a General Program for the International Communist Movement by advancing the bi-lateral discussions.  Maoist Communist Party of Manipur assures the people of Manipur that it will take responsibility in building the General Program. Through these bilateral discussions only, we can build up unity of the Maoists.  Maoist Communist Party, Manipur firmly believes that the bi-lateral discussions will bring the Maoist parties closer to each other and provide an opportunity to understand and trust each other more. Maoist Communist Party, Manipur will build strong relationships with Maoist parties of other countries through these bi-lateral discussions, the statement added.

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Root of Peoples’ anger to Doctors

Doctors are not God. But every time a patient died in mysterious circumstances the doctor who are on duty often got the blamed. In the state of Manipur there are several cases that patient party vandalized hospitals for any fatal incident blaming negligence to the part of the doctors. It is natural that human being crosses their limit when someone near and dear one lost their live. But act of vandalism inside a hospital complex makes no different from attempt to murder of patients who are undergoing treatment in the hospital. The kind of action may even cause serious impact to patients undergoing treatment at the hospital wards. If the patient has multiple problem associated with cardio related disease than there are chances that the patient may landed to fatalities. Why shouldn’t the mob pouring anger alleging doctors’ negligence to the cause of any dead of patient is equally blamed if a patient dies out of their action?
Saying so this writing does not justifies or stand with those in the medical profession while rendering their service to the patient. But as stated earlier doctors are no God, they make mistakes and if the quantum of mistake they committed is harsh then they deserved punishment but not by hostilities. During a panel discussion at a local cable TV, Dr. Ch. Narendra, a senior advocate and also a visiting lecture of the LMS Law College Imphal said that if in case a patient party suspect negligence of doctor for the cause of dead of patient they can take the help of the court. He also stated the Consumer Court as the best forum for filing case against the doctor.
The number of attack to hospitals and the doctors after the dead of patient is on the rise. The month of April witness several such incidents which prompted patient party to go hostile. Interestingly almost all the incident happened at the premier Institutes – JIMNS and RIMS. Less report about patient party alleging doctors of the Private hospital appears.
Well, if one ponders on why the patient party felt that the doctors at JNIMS and RIMS are very careless in providing medical care service – it certainly is the due to the inefficiency of those administering the Institution. Every person who had visited at both the hospital knows things that are happening. Both the hospital which are run by government – (RIMS is under the Union Ministry of Health and Family Welfare while JNIMS is run by the state government) are perhaps the only two government hospital in the entire country where patient are referred to private hospitals. Most of the time the patient are advice to take CT Scan, MRI, and others to private clinic even though the hospital have the equipments. The patient party usually have to follow the doctors’ advice as they fear negligence if fail to follow the advice.
Besides, high ego among the head of departments of each section at both the hospital also harasses the patient many a time. At RIMS, lack of coordination between medicine department and the Radiology department had force many patient to leave the hospital.
Another serious matter is that, there is no proper guidelines display for the public on how a cancer patient will get the benefit of the hospital. There are numerous stories about cancer patient who had already undergone treated outside the hospital but have to come back at RIMS , perhaps due to lack of adequate money, have to return back disappointed.
In November 2017, a PG student at RIMS, wrote to the Prime Minister stating that the institution which he came with high hopes is the most corrupt institution in the entire country.
This newspaper had reported about procuring medical equipments at JNIMS which are not fit to be utilized at a premier hospital like JINIMS.
Having stated so, it is told that RIMS and JNIMS have the best doctor which have good name in the medicine world. But then, these doctors now get bad name due to mistake committed by some. Almost all doctors are enjoying the none-practicing allowances even though they are seen in private hospitals.
The root of negligence among the doctors in rendering their service to the hospital is perhaps this attitude of them. Well the private hospitals like Shija , Raj, City, among others have more advance equipments is sometime a justification from doctors who are dealing with complicated illness.
One wonder why the Premier hospital which the government spent crore of money could not afford to buy better equipment from those of the private hospitals. Why there is a break down to the CT scan and MRI machine quite often in RIMS and JNIMS when such are not heard in private hospital.
When the patient party have to think twice before committing any vandalism to hospital, the hospital authority at RIMS and JNIMS should know their duty.

‘ASPIRATION IN MEDICAL CAREER’ - and its effect among our youths.

Among  any  other  career  after 10+2,  Medical  career  seems  to  be  at the top  not only in Manipur but  throughout  India.  This  is  because,  Employability  is  the  best  as  compare to  any  other  course especially  in Manipur . Yes, medical profession is highly needed for a healthy public life. To make their children to be a Doctor, parents tried all their wits end. I think, it’s also necessary to identify whether his ward is fit for the medical profession or not .Simply pushing their children in the helm of Medical arena without their own aspiration will rather produce negative impact in the life of  many of our youths. It is not an easy task for a student to qualify in National Eligibility cum Entrance Test (NEET) to undergo Medical profession. Nevertheless we should not give up our effort to qualify in this national level common examination. As we all know majority of our parents put maximum input for their children to be selected in NEET after 10+2.
In  spite  of  having  talents  in  Mathematics  by  our  students,  it  appears  this  talent  has  been nipped in the buds after class X due to viral among our parents for medical career. This is clearly seen from the result of HSLC Examination of BOSEM and HSSLC Examination of COHSEM. Many students scored letter mark in Mathematics in HSLC exam of BOSEM while pass percentage in Mathematics in HSSLC exams of COHSEM is very pathetic. One of main reason of declining in the pass percentage of Mathematics in HSSLC may be due to madness in Medical career, if I am not mistaken. Because of this, many students who are very good in Mathematics up to Class X started neglecting it in Class XI and XII. Now ,we need to rethink ,how many students from Manipur will get  the  opportunity  to  go  for  Medical  line  out  of  thousands  of  students  passed    XII  Sc,  from COHSEM  and  CBSE ? I  think,  at  the  most  300  students  from  Manipur  will  get  this  opportunity through NEET. Of course few rich parents send their children to Private Medical Colleges in India and abroad after spending huge amount.  Any  way  giving  effort  to  be  qualified  in  NEET  is encouraging and is a must to do. But one dark side of this attempt is that, a student who tried
NEET for the first time is generally not selected but continue for second attempt by sending them to premier coaching centers. Yes, it’s good and positive attitude of trying again and again.
However many of the parents simply admitted their wards in BA/ B.Sc in some Colleges (where they can appear examination without attending the class) in conjunction with their coaching class for medical. During the examination in these colleges where they admitted, how and what he/she might  have  written    is  the  scene  that  everybody  know  .Because  of  the  way  they  appear  the examination in these colleges their moral of study for the NEET goes down to hell though they may pass the degree exam with high grade. As a result of this their second attempt in NEET is also not successful, then they tried for third time .By the time he/she completes graduation from these colleges without learning anything. In this way the career of many of our bright student have been spoiled. Because of their poor learning during graduation they find very hard to go for further PG  studies.  Then they become useless for anything in their life.  As a result they get frustrated and mentally depressed, lost self-confidence and become a spoil bread of the family and society. So, if this is the case, what shall we do now? Now ,the time has come to put our head together to correct this menace and identify right person for this profession by the parents so that we can save our bright talented stars   before it’s too  late.  These  are  some  of  the  real phenomena that I came across being in teaching profession.

(The writer is a faculty at NEILIT Imphal Center. He can be contacted at   This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it. or whatapps at 9612891339)

Reverend William Pettigrew and Modern Education in Manipur

By- Dr.L.Leiren Singh

Reverend William Pettigrew (1869-1943) was an Engilsh missionary. He came to India at an early age of 21 in 1890. He worked for two years in Bengal. The Manipur war of 1891 attracted his attention to work in Manipur. As such, he sought permission from the administrative authorities of Manipur for his entry permit. While waiting for his permit at silchar, he contacted some Manipuries there for learning Manipuri language. Making purposeful use of his newly acquired knowledge of Manipuri, he wrote the first Manipuri Primer and Manipuri Grammar including English-Bengali-Manipuri dictionary. Later on, he was assigned the task of reducing Manipuri vernicular into writing.The initial wrk done by him facilitated in entering Manipur at a time when Manipur administration did not allow Christian missionaries to work freely in Manipur adopting the policy of religious neutrality not to hurt religious sentiment of the people.
However, Mr.A.Porteous, the then acting political agent of Manipur, granted permission to enter Manipur to William Pettigrew. He arrived in Imphal on 6 January, 1894. After his arrival, he started his work by opening a primary school at Singjamei bor boys in his name. The school is now upgraded to Junior High School and till known as Pettigrew Junior High School. In the same year, there was a problem concerning Johnstone Middle English School, the first School of Manipur established in 1885 under the initiative of Sir James Johnstone, due to the resignation of its headmaster. To fill-up vacancy, William Pettigrew worked as the honorary headmaster of the school and his service was highly appreciated by all sections of the people of Manipur. Later on, honorary service in various capacities happened a regular feature on his part. During his short tenure of 6(six) months at Imphal, he initiated the spread of girls’ education and strived to find out a suitable lady teacher from outside the state.
But the action of Mr.A.Porteous permitting Pettigrew to function freely was strong resented ny the orthodox Hindus of Manipur. They suspected it as an attempted in-road upon the Meitei culture by means of imposing christianity. A tension had been created in this way in the mind of the people. The arrival of Major Maxwell, political agent in Manipur from furlough set things at rest and the tense situation was brought under control. Pettigrew was asked to work in the hill areas of Ukhrul which under the British administration at that time, that too at his own risk. It was a blessing in disguise for him in the hope that one day he would be able to resume his earlier work in the valley areas of Manipur. He started contacting 16(sixteen) tribal chiefs for permitting him to work in their respective villages. But they all rejected his proposal on the idea of alien religion and education to be imposed on them.
At last, he was given a plot of land at Phungyo in Ukhrul in the month of January 1896 and he worked there with his wife, Alice Gorcham. In January 27, 1896, he was also appointed as Missionary of the American Baptist Mission Society. The first task taken up by him was to win the confidence of the people and start a boys’ school there. A lower primary school was accordingly opened at Ukhrul in the month of February, 1897 with an enrolment of 20 boys. Thus, modern education had its root in Ukhrul under the able guidance of Pettigrew. He was , later on, assisted by Major Maxwell by all possible means. But the earlier years of Mr. and Mrs. Pettigrew at Ukhrul were very difficult. The primary school upgraded to the standard of a Middle English School in 1906. He continued as the headmaster of the school for a long period after its establishment.
He also inspected all the schools of Manipur as the Honorary Inspector of schools for 7 (seven) years 1897-1903. His knowledge of Manipuri and Bengali languages and the valuable service rendered by him during his brief stay at Imphal attracted the attention of the political agent who asked him to assist the government in establishing scholls in various part of Imphal, Ukhrul and secured and appointed teachers and prepared curriculum with the help of the teachers. When he relinguished his assignment of Honorary Inspector of schools for furlough in 1903, 28 schools has been established including Mao and Hundung Lower Primary School and 23 text-books had been translated from Bengali language to Manipuri. It was also during this period of furlough, Pettigrew took two years course at the Livingstone-Medical College for Missionaries and studied dentistry and surgery along with practical work done in the outdoor dispensaries in the slums of East London. He applied his medical knowledge in Ukhrul after his arrival there with help of Mrs. Pettigrew which ultimately paved the way for the establishment of a hospital in Ukhrul in 1902.
In 1911, Pettigrew was also given an unexpected opportunity to visit all his areas of Manipur as he was the only Englishman who knew tribal dialects. He was made superintendent of census operation which was being taken for the first time in the hill areas of Manipur. Christian teachers and student in the higher classes from Ukhrul helped him as enumerators and supervisions in successfully concluding the census. The contracts made at this time proved useful in extending his areas of operation in non-Tangkhul areas well as in motivating the people for the propogation of Christianity and the benefits of modern education. He also gave similar assistance in the census operations of 1921 and 1931.
During the first world war 1914, Pettigrew was commissioned to France as an Army Captain by the British authorities. He was further entrusted to recruit labour corps to France from the people of hills areas of Manipur. Through his missionary influence, he successfully recruited the labour corps under the leadership of his 6(six) trusted church leaders and students. Similarly, during the Kuki rebellion (1917-19), Dr. Crozier had been transfered from Tura to Manipur in the year 1917 at the request of William Pettigrew. But, Manipur Government refused to permit more than one missionary to work in the state. However, Dr. Crozier and Mrs. Crozier spent their time in helping the state. After Pettigrew’s return from war, he pleaded for a second missionary family to work in Manipur. It was due to Pettigrew’s war service, the state Government permitted a second missionary to work in Manipur in 1917 and the Mission centre from Ukhrul was also shifted to Kangpokpi in 1919.
It amy be pointed out that for 23 years (1894-1917), Manipur administrators allowed only one missionary to work in Ukhrul. But in 1928, permission was granted to all missionaries to work area in the hill areas of Manipur.
It was also originally thought that Pettigrew and Crozier would work together in Manipur. But the difference of opinion between them led to divide Manipuri field into two spheres of influence, Pettigrew supervised  schools on Imphal, North East and Sadar Hill regions and Dr. Crozier assumed the responsibility for the North-Western regions including supervision work for dispensaries, hospitals and leper asylums. Hence, Pettigrew worked mainly among the Nagas and extended his work to Imphal by establishing a church at Keishamthong in 1916. However Dr. Crozier worked specially among the Kukis. For the benefit of the people,  a dispensary and a leper asylum were also opened in the new mission centre.

Both the school and dispensary became one of the best centres for learning and medical treatment later on. In 1919, Pettigrews left for furlough and they joined the work of Croziers in 1921. But Dr.Crozier resigned from the American Baptist Foreign Mission Society in 1932 and joined Baptist Mid-Mission for reasons best known to him. With the growth of Christianity, education also developed largely due to the efforts of missionaries. The influence of Christianity perhaps brought awareness of better standard of living among the tribal people of Manipur. Mrs.Pettigrew also extended great help to the women- folk giving them training in nursing, knitting,weaving,cleanliness etc. which stood in good stead in their future life. The impact of christainity,undoubtedly,advanced the socio-economic life of the tribal of Manipur. As the local churches rapidly grew along with the advancement of modern education among the hill people,higher theological trained leaders were also urgently required for the churches. William Pettigrew made adequate arrangement for the supply of theological manpower.

Reading materials were essentially required for the spread of modern education among the people of Manipur. To meet this requirement, Pettigrew prepared text books in Manipuri,Tangkhul and Thadou Kuki. Other instructional materials-primers, books on Arithmatics were also prepared either by him or under his supervision to meet scriptures and christian literatures not only in Manipuri language but also in Tangkhul, Thadou and Kom Kuki dialects.

Pettigrew’s linguistic studies and researches had given him a position of unique authority on the language of Manipur. In 1923, Sir George Grierson, Director of the Linguistic Survey of India, asked him to collect relevant materials for the publication of a monograph on archaic Manipuri. He undertook the assignment in collaboration with W.Yumjao Singh and a Meitei  Maichon, collecting a vocabularly of over 600 words thereby preparing a skelton grammar, a translation and transliteration of two selected scripts. In 1931, a rough statement of the work was sent by Pettigrew to the general secretary of the Asiatic Society of Bengal.

Reverend Willaim Pettigrew’s work has been recognised and appreciated not only in Manipur but also outside the state. In recognition of his distinguished public service, he was awarded the Kaisar-i-Hind Silver medal by the British government in 1918. He was also awarded a war medal in 1920 for military service in the British army during the First World War. He had also been made a member of the educational standing committee pf the state of Manipur since 1926 in recognition of his work in developing modern education in Manipur as well as his own interest in uplifting the masses of Manipur through education. In 1928, In recognition of his scripture translation work in Manipuri language, Tangkhul and Thadou Kuki dialects, he was made honorary member of the British and Foreign Bible Society. Pettigrew carried out systematic and consistent research work among the various tribes of Manipur and useful research in archaic Manipuri also found recognition in his election to membership of the Asiatic Society of Bengal in 1930. Thus he held many positions of trust and respect within the Christian mission and served in a number of committees of the state government in various capacities.

The value of the work done by him for forty years (1894-1933) of his life in Manipur cannot be described in words as he dedicated his life for the cause of Christianity and modern education in Manipur. He was a dedicated field worker of education and linguist, He has also taken all assignments given to him with a spirit of team work with the people and government officials. The educational and religious development of hill-districts of Manipur may be attributed to the selfless and dedicated service of Reverend William Pettigrew. Modern education was for the first time introduced to the tribals of Manipur by him and as such he is rightly called the father of modern education for the tribals. He successfully experimented the monitorial system of Andrew Bell in the village schools of Ukhrul utilizing the service of class 6 students for teaching lower classes. This method of entrusting teaching work to brilliant students had a great educational value.

He secured the confidence of the people at the grassroot level and paved the way for the development of girls, education in the valley and hill areas of Manipur. It may not be out place to point out that the history of the development of modern education in Manipur would have been different without the dedicated service of Reverend William Pettigrew in various capacities. To commemorate his valuable service in developing particularly the people of Ukhrul by all possible means, Pettigrew College was established in Ukhrul with the local initiative in 1965. The college is at present functioning as a co-educational Arts degree college. The colleges gives an edible indelible impression in the mind of the people of Ukhrul about the contribution made by him.

In concluding our discussion, it may be pointed out that Manipur had only one primary school in 1885. But the whole scenario of education had been completely changed after the arrival of Pettigrew and his stress on introduction of modern system of education. Now, the state has 3,225 primary schools, 687 Junior High Schools, 394 High Schools,27 Higher Secondary Schools,60 colleges and 2 Universities including Central Agriculture University, Iroisemba. The literacy percentage of the state in 1991 is 60.96 in the break-up of 72.98 for male and 48.64 for female.

The state is now an educationally advanced state of India even though the country has 10(ten) educationally backward states. The state may not have the present status if Reverend William Pettigrew did not start his educational exploration in 1894 and 1897 In both valley and hill areas with a missionary zeal. He worked not only for the spiritual welfare of the various tribes of Manipur by means of propagating Christianity but also the role of Reverend William Pettigrew in the field of modern education in Manipur is of great significance. He combined religion with education successfully.

(Concluded)

Liquid Biopsy – A game changer for Oncologists

By- Dr Sameer Kaul,
The advent of next-generation sequencing has quickened the pace of discovery in oncology by making available an entire class of biomarkers that are the result of mutation analysis and are biologically tumor-specific. These genetic mutations drive virtually all forms of cancer.
The development of non-invasive methods to detect and monitor tumour has been a major challenge in oncology. Cancer diagnosis at its early stages is now made easy and non – invasive. Researchers have found that unique cancer mutations can show up in microscopic fragments of DNA in a patient’s blood.
What are tumor cells?
Tumors shed both intact cells (resulting in circulating tumor cells) as well as cellular components, such as nucleic acids (resulting in cell-free DNA or RNA).
Circulating Tumor Cells (CTC) - CTC enumeration serves as a marker for tumor growth as well as for defining tumor aggressiveness. Higher CTC counts mean negative cancer prognosis. They are formed by cell detachment from the primary tumor mass. A few challenges in isolating CTC are that they are very rare in the plasma, fragile that is it can easily vanish or get damaged during extraction. The main challenge is that they are heterogeneous which means all the types of cells need to be isolated individually.
Circulating Tumor Nucleic Acid (ctNA) - Circulating nucleic acids as noninvasive biomarkers for human disease. Increased levels of circulating nucleic acids (DNA, mRNA, and miRNA) in the blood reflect pathological
Processes. Types of cell-free nucleic acids -
·    DNA (defined as cell-free DNA, cfDNA)
·    miRNA (microRNA)
·    mRNA
·    Long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs)
Circulating Tumor DNA (ctDNA) - ctDNA reflects disease progression and treatment responses. Tumor cells are large and multiply quickly so the phagocyte process does not happen efficiently within the tumor mass, leading to the accumulation of cellular debris and its release into the circulation.
Liquid Biopsy – how it is the need of the hour
Monitoring of a disease is fundamental for successful treatment of that disease. Cancer is a genetic disease, and the progression of cancer is characterized by high heterogeneity. T-cells are therapeutic resistant that is the tumors acquire new mutations that render them resistant to the therapies that target specific genetic mutations.
A liquid biopsy is a liquid biomarker that can be isolated from body fluids, such as blood, saliva, urine, ascites, or pleural effusion. Like a tissue biopsy, it is a representative of the tissue from which it has spread.
The non-invasive nature of liquid biopsies, which require only 5 mL of blood, means they are much easier to tolerate and the procedure is quicker than a surgical biopsy. The blood sample is then ‘spun down’ to get 2 mL of plasma which can be analysed for tumour DNA.
Tolerability and convenience are a major boost for patients. The biggest benefit lies in the potential of liquid biopsies to detect disease progression or treatment resistance long before it would trigger clinical symptoms or appear on imaging scans.
 Liquid biopsies have become more clinically useful in recent years due to the ability to pair tests on circulating tumor cells with genomic tests.
Liquid Biopsy – Advantages over traditional methods
The molecular properties of this heterogeneous disease differ within a tumor. Primary tumor biopsy may not reflect current disease condition and may cause changes in the tumor cells. Traditional biopsy is invasive and the tissues are limited, which puts a question mark on the feasibility based on patient condition or the T-cell. Liquid biopsy addresses all these limitations!
Mutation analysis has traditionally been performed only on tissue biopsy material. However, many tumors are difficult to biopsy, are accessible only using fine needle aspirates, or are located either in unknown sites or in sites that are challenging and risky to access.
Radiographic approaches are often insensitive to changes in tumor response and the recovery of additional biopsy material assumes we can effectively identify the most important sample of the disease for analysis. The traditional methods for tumor assessment fail to capture the heterogeneity of the disease, especially during progression.
The Liquid biopsy can solve these problems. It is a supplementary biopsy mechanism that samples different parts of the disease from traditional surgical biopsy, has none of the associated side effects or risks being just a blood draw, can be repeated as needed for effective monitoring, and samples the part of the tumor that is associated with metastatic events.
Unlike traditional biopsies, liquid biopsies remove the need for invasive surgeries and procedures by instead allowing medical professionals to test for signs of cancer from a simple blood-draw. Hence liquid biopsies are easier to perform, giving hope to many that they will lead to earlier diagnoses of cancers in patients.
Certain fragments of DNA shed by tumours into the bloodstream can potentially be used to non-invasively screen for early-stage cancers, monitor responses to treatment and help explain why some cancers are resistant to therapies. Liquid biopsies have been made possible by advances in sequencing the human genome since scientists and researchers can now detect genetic mutations of cancers.
Tumor cells release Cell-free circulating tumour DNA (ctDNA) and circulating tumour cells (CTCs) in the plasma of the cancer patients. Therefore, assays using these molecules can be used for early tumor detection, monitoring or detection of resistance mutations.
ctDNA liquid biopsy allows us to understand specifically what kind of molecular changes are happening in the tumour in real time, which is a very big step beyond where CTCs are today in clinical terms.

*****The writer is a Senior Oncologist, Indraprastha Apollo Hospital, New Delhi

Know Your Armed Forces By- IGAR (South)

In its continuous efforts to guide the youth of the nation to a better path, Mantripukhri Battalion of 9 Sector Assam Rifles under the aegis of IGAR(South) organised an awareness programme on ‘Know Your Armed Forces’ at Jawahar Navodaya Vidyalaya, Yaralpat on 09 May.

The event was organised by Koirengei Company Operating Base (COB) of the Battalion to give young students an insight into the Indian Army and the Assam Rifles. The event witnessed attendance of over 300 students and teachers from eight colleges and fifteen schools all over Manipur.

As part of the event, a series of activities were carried out. The event commenced with a motivational lecture on ‘Live a Life Less Ordinary: Indian Army and Assam Rifles’ wherein the attendees were informed about the glorious history and traditions of the Indian Army and the Assam Rifles. The students were also made aware on various types of entries to join the Indian Armed Forces as a career option including eligibility for direct SSB interviews after obtaining NCC ‘C’ Certificates.

An informative video was also screened for the students showcasing valour of the Indian Armed Forces and various ways to join the Forces. The lecture was followed by an interactive session clarifying all the queries raised by the students regarding procedure to join the Indian Army and the Assam Rifles. Information on the upcoming recruitment rallies along with career counseling was also provided to the attendees during the programme. 

As part of the event new generation weapons and equipment used by the Indian Armed Forces were also displayed. The youth were fascinated seeing the display and showed tremendous inquisitiveness regarding the technical knowhow and functionality of the weapons and equipment. The exhilaration and exuberance of the youth was visible during the interaction wherein various queries regarding weapons and equipment were answered. The event concluded with tea and refreshments for all the attendees.

The event offered a platform for the youth to know more closely about the Indian Armed Forces. All the attendees expressed profound gratitude to the Battalion for undertaking such an initiative and appreciated the continuous efforts and commitments of Assam Rifles in reaching out to the youth.

  • Published in News
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