By Kakchingtabam Ruhinikumar Sharma

(This article is incorporated as a chapter in the forthcoming book on Second World War and Manipur)
World War II is one of the greatest catastrophic events of twentieth-century which impacted the lives of millions of people across the world. In World War II, over sixty million men and women were killed and many more were maimed which is much more than the people killed in World War I. As the British colonial government unilaterally declared India a party to the War it was responded with widespread condemnation across all sections of Indians except the Communist Party of India. Even Mohandas K. Gandhi despite his strong reservations against British colonial rule who sided with the British on many occasions was determined to oppose the moves of the British India government to make India a party to the war against the Axis forces represented by Italy, Germany and Japan. Indian National Congress’s response was the famous “Quit India Resolution” of 8th August 1942 and the response to the ‘Bharat Chhodo’ call was met with large scale violence all over India with public enthusiasm hitherto not witnessed in India’s struggle for freedom.
A Recapitulation:
Subhas Chandra Bose (1897-1945) was one of the fearless leaders of the nationalist movement in India. He was twice elected the president of the Indian National Congress in 1938 and 1939. In his election for the second time as the President of the Indian National Congress, he was opposed by Mahatma Gandhi. He resigned from the Congress presidentship and started a new party known as the Forward Block. The remaining account of Subhas’s imprisonment, release and escape from house detention, subsequent release and onward journey and heroics indulged in for India’s liberation and freedom, establishment of Azad Hind Fauz (INA) has been left out of the purview of this paper to avoid repetitiveness. Yet a few lines outlining the importance Azad Hind Fauz (INA) in the history of India’s struggle for freedom is given hereunder to situate the narrative within a broader perspective.
Importance of the Azad Hind Fauz (INA) in India’s struggle for freedom:
INA occupies an important place in the history of India’s struggle for freedom. The formation of the Indian National Army and the brave fight put up by the INA men opened the eyes of the British Government to the danger of reasons why the British Government continued to maintain their hold on India and that was ultimately one of the reasons why the British Government decided to grant independence to India. The members of the INA did not die or suffer in vain. They have a place of honour in the history of India’s struggle for freedom. The Provisional Government set up by Netaji Subhas Chandra Bose and the Indian National Army organized by him brought the Indian question out of narrow domestic sphere of the British Empire into the field of international politics. The recognition of the provisional Government of free India by Japan, Germany and Italy and other countries gave a new status to India. The world opinion was affected by the exploits of Netaji Subhas Chandra Bose and Indian National Army. The Indian National Army also proved that Indian soldiers were also willing to sacrifice his life for the sake of the country. The officers of INA set up a brilliant record of communal harmony and Commandership.
Hugh Toye gives his estimate of INA in these words,”There can thus be little doubt that the Indian National Army, not in its unhappy career on the battlefield, but in its thunderous disintegration, hastened the end of British rule in India. The agitation which surrounded the trials turned the issue of independence for India into an instant burning question once more. (Hugh Toye, The Springing Tiger, Sixth Jaico Impression:, 1978, p.175)
World War II and Manipuri Literature:
At the very outset the present writer would like to make a clarification regarding the use of the term ‘Manipuri Literature’. Here ‘Manipuri Literature’ is meant to denote the literary works in any genre and is not only confined to the works produced in Meiteilon or Manipuri but also covered works in other languages that deal with themes or issues concerning Manipur. Hence the term is used in its wider sense and in a larger context. In this case, Manipuri literature too has not lagged in capturing the World War, especially because Imphal, and for that matter the entire state was in the grip of war for more than a year. Since there was large scale internal displacement of people as a result of the face to face fighting between the combating forces supplemented by intermittent air raids, Manipur, particularly Imphal valley wore a deserted look. Homestead lands belonging to different leikais (localities) were overnight turned into army camps. On 10th May, 1942 Imphal witnessed bombardment by the Japanese forces for the first time. From the onwards Imphal became a centre of Japanese invasion and British resistance. Because of the repeated air raids people in large numbers left their homes followed in quick succession to interior areas of the land for safety of their lives.
Normalcy gradually returned in Imphal around 1946 after the withdrawal of Japanese forces and Azad Hind Fauz soldiers as their joint campaign ended in disaster. This was the time people returned to their respective original homes vacated by the Allied forces. Gradually normal activities started opening up in a slow and gradual manner. Economic and educational activities started picking up. The then existing theatre halls in and around Imphal, which had to remain non-functional during the war gradually started staging plays. Proscenium theatre in Manipur already enjoyed a large following. Manipur Dramatic Union (M.D.U.) for instance staged a hugely popular play titled Naba-Mallika penned by Khwairakpam Chaoba (Chaoba Singh 1895-1950) of the famed Chaoba, Kamal Anganghal triumvirate of Manipuri literature.
As mentioned earlier when peace gradually returned in Manipuri a few litterateur of the land started picking up their pen recording and recollecting events of the contemporary Manipur. Mention may be made of Rajkumar Shitaljit Singh, Rajkumar Sanahal Singh, Khwairakpam Chaoba Singh, Keisham Kunjabihari Singh, G.C. Tongbra and a few others followed suit in later years.
Rajkumar Shitaljit Singh (1913-2008), a well-known teacher of Ram Lal Paul High Schhol, Imphal was the first native who sketched a biographical account of Subhas Chandra Bose titled “Netaji Subhas Chandra Bose amasung Azad Hind Fauz” (Netaji Subhas Chandra Bose and Azad Hind Fauz) and it was published in 1946. This small book running into 52 pages divided into three chapters provide a well written account of the life and activities of Subhas Chandra Bose in a chronological order. It was probably the second biographical account of a great Indian nationalist after Bal Gangadhar Tilak by the legendary leader Hijam Irabot Singh. Though short, but in a lucid manner Shri Shitaljit profiled the career and character of Subhas and described him as one of the greatest patriot India had ever produced in her history. In a convincing manner the writer depicts the humane side of Netaji, as Subhas was affectionately called by Indians including Gandhi in his concerns for the wounded soldiers of INA in Burma. This book with much success helped a lot in showing Subhas Chandra Bose in a positive light among the youths of the time. The present writer is fortunate enough to possess a copy of this rare book handed over by an elder long time back. To be frank, Netaji was the most popular icon in our school days in comparison with other national leaders who wielded more political power and authority than him. In fact, he was our lionised hero of the past.

Rajkumar Sanahal Singh (1918–1990) in his ‘History of Manipur’ published in 1947 gave a short but convincing account of the war and efforts made by Bodhchandra Singh, the Maharaja of Manipur to keep morale of his subjects high during those tumultuous days. It was because of the Maharaja’s consistent effort that people of Manipur mostly remained loyal to the Allied forces rather than the liberation forces of Azad Hind. The book carries a statement of Subhas Chandra Bose where the leader acknowledged reverses made by his forces; “In Imphal and Burma we have lost the first round in our fight” (n.d., Hindustan Standard). However Field Marshal Slims, commander of Allied Forces assessment of the situation clearly shows how the Allies were struggling to hold on their positions at Imphal against the determined combined forces of INA and the Japanese. To quote Slims, “The remarkable fighting withdrawal of the 17th Indian Division back to Imphal and the tenacious defence of Kohima by a small scratch garrison in the early days actually converted the two “miscalculations” into contributory causes enemy’s complete defeat” (The Times of India, Feb. 9, 1946). The antipathy of the Maharaja of Manipur was more visible against the Japanese than the INA personnel. In this connection the Hindustan Standard carries a statement of the king on 3rd April 1944 where it was explicitly stated that, “I and my people will fight the Japs to the last if he ever attempts to get here. My place is here by the side of my people”. He further made his position clear, thus, “In the hour of danger I must stand by my people”. May be the top leadership of INA was not in a position to correctly assess the mood of the Manipuris and the exact nature of British control over the kingdom.
The trials and tribulations of the war and sufferings endured by the people is well depicted in the writings of Hijam Guno Singh (1926-2010), a versatile writer. His three novels Khudol (1964), Aroiba Paodam (1966) and Bir Tikendrajit Road (1983), though written from different settings are somehow connected with the events of 2nd World War. These novels portray lived experiences of different characters, the tale of love, devotion, sacrifice and sometimes treachery. However in Aroiba Paodam alongwith the romantic tales of the protagonists running in full steam, yet there is another aspect of love – love for the motherland, yearning for freedom, freedom of the motherland from the bondage of continued enslavement. Motherland is the place where umbilical cord of the natives are buried and mingled with her soil inseparably. Thus the father of the female protagonist took the extreme step of leaving her grown up daughters and son to the care of her eldest daughter went to the jungles unannounced to fight for the liberation of motherland from foreign rule. The creative élan of the writer compels us to read the novel till its end with the eagerness to know what comes next. Mother and Motherland are Greater than Heaven is the mantra that metamorphoses Shajouba, father of the female protagonist Jamuna to chart for the untraded path of freedom by joining Azad Hind Fauz.
Manipur and World War II: (In verse), With a Glimpse of the World in two volumes (1980, 1981) is almost an epic poem in English language by Sanasam Gourhari Singh (1911 – 1988) who needs no introduction. Suffice enough to mention, Sanasam Gourhari Singh was a teacher, administrator above all an accomplished writer. This man had the ins and outs of twentieth century Manipur history. This monumental two volume account runs into around ten thousand stanzas may described as a classic of Second World War literature produced from Manipur so far. Space does not permit us to go into the details of what Gourhari had penned in this book. Almost the second volume focussed on detailing the various battlefields that took place in Manipur and her neighbours and its outcome. Though the writer was closely associated with the king of Manipur in various capacities during the war the writer could not but refrain from calling Subhas Chandra Bose as Netaji. It might be of interest to note that 162 stanza of four line running into 648 lines have been devoted in describing the life and activities of Subhas Chandra Bose. Some specimens are given hereunder to illustrate the point further.
With panoramic view of the world history
Shining bright in his mind’s clear eye
Subhas Bose lived defying pains of pillory
For sacred cause of India’s freedom high. (3235)
Had he any hope of getting India’s freedom
Without action from abroad as a basis
He wouldn’t have India during a crisis
But it was only British promise’s boredom. (3323)
He said he was not by any Axis men deceived
Losing prestige of India he’d not have lived
He went to Japan as she fought India’s enemy
His choice was for India’s good, not ignominy. (3325)
He said, “When you go back to India, dear
Tell people I’ve been fighting without fear
To the last for mother India’s liberation
They should fight now in continuation. (3372)
“I’m sure India will be free before long
Now nobody can keep India in bondage”,
It was Netaji’s last statement at the stage
It was in keeping with his oath strong. (3373)
Shri Sanasam Gourhari’s Manipur and World War II is a highly readable account of World War II in verse from Manipuri perspective. Though written in verse form, it is almost a historical account of the War and associated battles taking place in Manipur and its adjoining areas.
Awonba Samaj (1995), by Thiyam Indrakumar Singh, a voluminous novel of 406 pages almost looks like a social history of Manipur during 1939-1948 rather than a creative work of fiction. The novel depicts the existential crises faced by common man in their day-to-day life during the uncertain days of Second World War. Without much pondering in actual terms, it reflects on the political economy of the land conditioned by the ravages of war and resultant displacement of the people and their yearning to build a new society based on social equality.(Thiyam Indrakumar Singh,Awonba Samaj, Imphal, 1995)
A person who is more known for political statesmanship but who unexpectedly forayed into writing was late Yumnam Yaima Singh (1922-2017), a social and political activist of more than five decades of active public life. After retirement from public life due to advancing age, Yumnam Yaima devoted his spare time in writing; authored and published Nungshinana Hingminnaba (2004), Punshigi Khongchatta (2005), A Piece of Tenth Lok Sabha (English, 2005), Sita Ram (2011), and Manipuri Language bu Nipalsuba Schedule da Chalhankhiba. Of these books the first two are worthy of mention. Nungshinanana Hingminnaba (Living in Harmony), a novel published in the year 2004 is a vivid portrayal of war years and the accompanied changes brought about by the war. How the complexes of the war hardened the lives of common man giving way to simple and unsuspecting lives of the common people for a more materialistically craving life with full of suspiciousness inherent in it. Like the earlier work of Indrakumar, the author craves the eagerness for a harmonious existence among humankind for a better society. Punshigi Khonchatta (Journey of Life) published in 2005 the author endeavour to tell the story of his life and time contextualising it with the changes that took place in Manipur. Born in 1922 in a village called Oinam, south of Imphal valley, the writer witnessed and experienced the Japan Lan, as Second Word War was locally known from close quarters. Being exposed to social and political currents of the time and his association with Nikhil Manipuri Mahasabha Yaima Singh was gradually drawn towards the activities of INA under the influence of one Wangkhem Gyaneswar Singh of Nambol, a man well-versed in Bengali and was closely following the activities of Subhas and his INA by reading Anandabazar Patrika, a popular Bengali language newspaper. At Gyaneswar’s preaching Yaima was gradually drawn towards Netaji and his movement. Accordingly, a local branch of INA was established with the objective of extending men and material support when the forces of INA entered Manipur. Processions were conducted with slogan like ‘Delhi youna changsillu’ (chalo Delhi) and ‘Netaji ki jai’ (victory to Netaji) etc. with distribution of airdropped pamphlets under the caption ‘Give me blood, I will give you Freedom’ an appeal made by Subhas Chandra Bose calling upon his countrymen to fight for the freedom of India.
The maltreatment of persons possessing copies of the pamphlet by British sepoys is well recoded in Yaima’s account. As war fever gets stronger they could not work in open and functioning of the Nambol branch abruptly ended, the author remained and worked underground as was constantly searched by the British Military police for his involvement in the activities of INA. On the other hand, Gyaneswar and his spouse left for Burma to join INA. If intensive probes are made, we might come across many more such stories of unknown faces and unheard voices of their involvement and association with the INA.
Of all the World War II literatures on Manipur produced so far by Manipuri writers, the most interesting and detailed one is the memoir of Khuraijam Nimaicharan Singh (b. 1937), writer, lyricist and translator. Manipurda Prithibigi Anisuba Lanjao amasung Eina Angang Oiringei in Manipuri distributed in 28 short chapters running into 140 pages was published in 1997. The enlarged English translation of this book titled The 2nd World War in Manipur and My Childhood consisting 30 chapters was published in 2017 with the addition of some photographs and well-illustrated maps. As the title itself suggests, the book in both version are a short autobiographical account cum memoir of the childhood days of Khuraijam Nimaicharan Singh along with his vivid experience of the 2nd world war period, as well as some of the important battles fought in Manipur, retold in brief. The author rightly visualise of what happened at Imphal just after experiencing bombing for the first time in 1942. In the words of the author
“After the first bombing the then Imphal town was no better than a place without a ruler or government. ……… Those were the days when one could not procure things even though he had money to buy his needs because all market places were deserted without any seller and buyer. So the situation compelled the poor to go to the affluent people for their help either in terms of food crops or anything they needed for their bare subsistence. In those critical days, it was a common understanding to render help to one another with whatever they could afford to give in order that the situation may be eased to some extent. Other necessary things or materials were also exchanged among them in the form of barter economy”. (2017, pp. 17-18).
“In such a time, there were also mean fellows, mostly neighbours who used to stealing things from those houses, which were left unguarded by those householders. This type of theft and stealing habit of some people was also rampant in the deserted localities in Imphal during the period.” (Ibid., p. 18).
In subsequent chapters the author went further to describe how a beautiful place called Manipur – “The Little Paradise on Earth” was turned into one of the most decisive battlefields of 2nd World War and how it changed his life alongwith that of Manipur. But as the title of this paper suggests we do not have much liberty to stray here and there. So let me confine to the chapters concerned with INA. Two chapters of the book viz The Japanese & the INA in the final march into Manipur, War plan of the Japanese & the INA outlined the Japanese INA plan to enter into Manipur and mode of operation to be carried out against the Allied forces.
In the words of the author, “…, after a number of meetings and discussions between the Azad Hind Fauz and the Japanese government, it was unanimously resolved to co-operate with each other in the Imphal campaign, a big invasion through jungles and mountains until the British forces were driven out from Imphal, the last British stronghold. With this objective, they were then approaching towards Imphal from the north eastern and southern borders of Manipur. According to the plans of their attack, it was that the 15th Japanese Divisions was assigned to attack upto northwestern side of Manipur in order that the Imphal-Dimapur Road be cut and blocked at Kohima. These forces were penetrating endlessly from the Ukhrul side on the north with their arms and ammunitions. Another 31st Division had fought with the British army and succeeded to cut Dimapur road the main life line at many points. After a lot of intermittent fighting on their way, the Japanese army at the cost of their lives could thus press southward upto Kanglatongbi where a grim battle was raged with the occupying force of the Anglo-American army. It was said that there was a big loss of lives on both sides, but no further advance towards Imphal could be achieved by the Japanese. For the execution of the abovementioned plans, the names of Japanese generals and commanders like Yamauchi, Sato and Mutaguchi may not be left out. It was under their bravery, skills and experience that an action known as operation U could be carried out from the north eastern and south eastern regions bordering Burma and Manipur. Among the division nos. 15, 31 and 33 which were under the command of General Mutaguchi, the INA was also accounted as a good counterpart to them. After a number of fightings in Burma since 1942 the Japanese 33 division was already posted in the Kabow Valley as their base camp. In their further plans, the seize of Imphal-Tarau and Tiddim Roads were their objective so as to cut off the said roads from British vehicles thereby facilitating only Japanese supply on these roads. In this way, the 33 division with the INA were pressing hard towards Imphal plain from the southern side. It was a grim period of the time, when rains of monsoon season were heavily pouring all day and night, and in the unwelcome circumstances, they had to suffer a lot, not only from the British bullets but also from want of food, medical aids, adequate arms and ammunitions, and above all these, there were also the sicks and the wounded ones. Another force, under general Yamauchi, was also proceeding down from Tamu to Moreh and then to places near Pallel, a place of only 30 miles from Imphal proper. It was with these Japanese forces that the British had to face a grim, severe fightings at Maibam Lokpaching, known as the red hills to the Japanese; and the Britishers. In this fighting with the marauding Japanese the British had innumerable sacrifice at the cost of their lives and thus the further advance of the Japanese was successfully obstructed and repulsed their move. The man who planned all these for the Japanese army was General Mutaguchi ………. Energetic, skilled as he was, he had a strong ambition of this Imphal campaign with his firm belief that Imphal would soon be fallen into his hands before the monsoon. He even went upto the extent of making a peculiar example of Imphal as a big lake where a big fish was hiding; and the big fish (the British) would soon be caught and surrounded by his Japanese force”. (Ibid., p. 150).
However, “The Japanese were utterly disappointed when the chaos came on their way. The wearied armies had to run helter-skelter in the unknown jungles of Manipur when no food and arms could reach them from their far away camps. Their ammunitions were running short, besides, the number of the sick and the wounded were also increasing. They had none to care for them but to think of their own lives. To add to these, the heavy showers of the monsoon too was a grave menace to them. To imagine the plight of those helpless soldiers, one will surely feel the miserable fate they had been subjected to. Above all these, news of the Atom bombing by the Americans on Japanese capital cities of Hiroshima and Nagasaki could no more be endured in their hearts. It was the greatest of all the blows they had ever suffered, and now they had nothing but to give up all hopes of their existence.” (ibid.). Since the author had seen the activities of the British led Allied forces from close quarters it is quite natural that Nimaicharan does not have much experience to tell the tale of other side of the struggle and endurance experienced by the Japanese and INA soldiers. Despite these limitations the writer is quite successful in portraying how Manipur experienced the War.
This survey will remain incomplete if we leave out the contribution of Kshetri Bira Singh (b. 1948), one of the most accomplished novelists of all the contemporarywriters of Manipur. Apart from novel, the writer also dabbles in other genres. His two recently published works are worthy of mention. Ningthigi Ningthem (1996) is the most voluminous and detailed work of historical fiction relating to 2nd World War and Manipur. It gives daredevilish account of a Meitei youth called Ningthem who was assigned various duties by the British government. What is of interest in the novel is the craftsmanship of the writer in recreating the actions of the Allied forces in successfully carrying out a number of overt and covert operations against the Japanese forces against the backdrop in which the Japanese are gaining success after success in Southeast Asia against the former. Places like Nambol, Bishenpur, Moirang, Kakching, Pallel, Kanglatongbi, Senam where actual encounters had taken place in Manipur are well covered in this book. Though the focus of the book is more on Manipur, Naga Hills and Burma, the author connects it well with Delhi, Kolkata, London and Formosa as centres of war management and diplomacy are given due importance. However, a drawback of the work is its almost near absence on the heroic exploits and sufferings endured by INA soldiers and volunteers in Manipur. Had the author given a little more space on Subhash Chandra Bose and INA the quality of the book would have enhanced considerably?
In Kakchinggi Warida (1518–1945), a treatise on historical and cultural accounts of Kakching published in 2020 the author contributed two precious chapters on Kakching entitled ‘2nd World War at Kakching and INA (Azad Hind Fauz) at Kakching’. The first Japanese air raid at Kakching took place in the early November 1943 causing large scale displacement of local populace. Residential areas were under occupation of the Allied forces thereby affecting normal economic activities which could not be resumed in the immediate future. An interesting account provided by the writer is confrontation between the locals and some soldiers of the 11 African Divisions. According to this account some soldiers belonging to the Division frequented villages and made attempts to tarnish the modesty of local womenfolk. Enraged by the shameful and condemnable excesses committed by the soldiers and as a retaliatory action 11 soldiers were made to pay their lives. As a consequence movement of locals were severely inconvenienced, however withdrawal of the said force eased the situation to a great extent. (Bira, 2020, p. 165).For their involvement in murdering the Allied soldiers many locals continue to face ordeals. Nongmaithem Shakngou and Kshetrimayum Kundra Singh faced litigation for three years in connection with the incident. (ibid. p. 174). In the other chapter of the book the author tried to reconstruct efforts made by INA soldiers to win over British Indian soldiers in and around Shenam and surrounding areas albeit unsuccessfully. A large number of INA personnel lost lives because of the offensive carried out by the Gurkha soldiers of the Allies. As a last resort, a joint offensive carried out by the Japanese and INA forces with majority of the later made a serious assault on the Pallel Airfield of the Allied forces stationed at Kakching inflicted heavy damage by using magnetic mine-bomb thereby destroying a large number of aeroplanes. The devastating offensive was carried out on the midnight of 3-4 July, 1944 and afterwards the INA and Japanese soldiers made a complete withdrawal towards Burma from Kakching. (Ibid. p. 178). The author express his desire to establish a memorial in honour of the gallant INA soldiers who laid down their lives for the sacred cause they believed unto the last.
In Lieu of a Conclusion
For an individual, as well as for a nation, cultural memory is a complex and stratified entity strictly connected not only to the history and the experience of either the individual or the nation, but also to the way in which that very history and experience are read in time, individually and collectively. Each time, the past acquires new meanings and the same fact, even though it stays the same, is nevertheless shaped through remembrance; inevitably, it is juxtaposed to new backgrounds, to new biographies and to new recollections. We must therefore acknowledge that it is impossible to offer a final and absolute vision of the past, especially if the event to be recalled affects at once both the private and the public sphere of a heterogeneous community, as in the case of the memories of the two World Wars. (Memories andRepresentations of War, Elena Lamberti and Vita Fortunati (ed. 2009, p. 1).
There are many authors who documented the War in Manipur included E. Sonamani Singh’s serialised autobiography in Sahityaand Kh. Nimaicharan Singh’s memoir of war scenes greatly enriched our understanding of trials and tribulations of the people of those harrowing days. Kshetri Bira’s Ningthigi Ningthem portrays beautifully a poignant tale of human suffering and endurances. Thus the Second World War stories continue to remain inseparable from the minds of people across the region. An apology at the end is offered; owing to the constraint of time, the writer of this piece is not in a position to include literary works translated into Manipuri like Yaruingam by Birendra Kumar Bhattacharya and The Wind Cannot Read by Richard Mason.


Elena Lamberti and Vita Fortunati (Eds),Memories andRepresentations of War, (2009), Amsterdam – New York.
Hijam Guno Singh, Khudol, (1964), Imphal.
_______________, Bir Tikendrajit Road, (1983),Imphal.
_______________, Aroiba Paodam, (1966), Imphal.
Hugh Toye, The Springing Tiger, (1978)Jaico, Delhi.
Khuraijam Nimaicharan Singh, Manipurda Prithibigi Anisuba Lanjao amasung Eina Angang Oiringei, (1997), Imphal.
Khuraijam Nimaicharan Singh, The 2nd World War in Manipur and My Childhood, (2017), Imphal.
Kshetri Bira Singh, Ningthigi Ningthem (1996),Kakching.
Kshetri Bira Singh, Kakchinggi Warida (1518 – 1945),Kakching, 2020.
Rajkumar Sanahal Singh, History of Manipur, (1947), Imphal.
Rajkumar Shitaljit Singh,Netaji Subhas Chandra Bose amasung Azad Hind Fauz, (1946), Imphal.
Sanasam Gourhari Singh, Manipur and World War II: With a Glimpse of the World in two volumes (1980, 1981) Imphal.
Thiyam Indrakumar Singh, Awonba Samaj, (1995),Imphal.
Thokchom Prafullo Singh, Kavi Khwairakpam Chaoba Singh amasung Mahakki Sahitya, (1996), Imphal.
Yumnam Yaima, Nungshinana Hingminnaba (2004), Imphal.
Yumnam Yaima, Punshigi Khongchatta, (2005),Imphal.



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