By: Vinod Chandrashekhar Dixit
26th November is observed as Constitution Day that is also known as Samvidhan Divas or National Law Day. On November 26, 1949, the Constituent Assembly of India formally adopted the Constitution of India. It came into force on January 26, 1950. Constitution Day aims to bring awareness about the importance of the Constitution and Dr B R Ambedkar. The ideals behind the Preamble to India’s Constitution were laid down by Jawaharlal Nehru’s Objectives Resolution, adopted by the Constituent Assembly on January 22, 1947. Representatives from several fields were voted into the constitutional assembly. There were four notable members viz. Dr. B.R Ambedkar, Jawaharlal Nehru, B.N Rau, and Sardar Vallabhai Patel.
Our Prime Minister Narendra Modi had marked November 26 as the Constitution Day of India in 2015. A fascinating fact about the Indian constitution is that it was enacted at the time of independence, when India faced enormous challenges, including safeguarding the lives and welfare of millions of people who had been displaced by the partition. In the face of violence and uncertainty, the Constituent Assembly drafted a Constitution that reflects the nation’s exceptional diversity, spanning languages, races, castes, and classes.
From 1947 to 1950, India continued to use the legislation implemented when it was a dominion of Britain. In the meantime, the Constituent Assembly drafted the Constitution of India, which would replace the Government of India Act, 1935, as the country’s fundamental governing document. The Constitution of India is the longest Constitution in the world, which describes the framework for political principles, procedures and powers of the government. Dr Rajendra Prasad was elected President of the Constituent Assembly. A Drafting Committee was appointed to draft the Constitution and Dr B.R. Ambedkar was appointed as the Chairman. The making of the Constitution took a total of 166 days, which was spread over a period of 2 years, 11 months and 18 days. It had 395 articles in 22 parts and 8 schedules at the time of commencement. Now it has 448 articles in 25 parts and 12 schedules.
The Indian Constitution provides an elaborate list of Fundamental Rights to the citizens of India. The Constitution also provides a list of 11 duties of the citizens, known as the Fundamental Duties. The Constitution serves as guidelines for every citizen. It helped India to attain the status of a Republic in the world. Once Atal Bihari Vajpayee said that “governments would come and go, political parties would be formed and dissolved, but the country should survive, and democracy should remain there forever” In a democratic constitution, it sets some limits on what a government can impose on its citizens. These limits are fundamental in the sense that government may never tresspass them. The term ‘Equality’ means no section of society has any special privileges and all the people have given equal opportunities for everything without any discriminations. Everyone is equal before the law.
A citizen of India is given freedom of Speech and Expression, freedom of Assembly, freedom of Association, freedom of Movement, freedom of Residence, and Freedom of Profession and Occupation through Art. 19. Unlike several countries of the world, we are free to practice, profess, and propagate any religion under Art. 25. Dr. Ambedkar, the chief architect of our constitution, has said that Article 32 is the soul of our constitution. All the talk of rights is useless if there is no recourse against their transgression. Under this article, a citizen is free to go to the Supreme Court for violation of his rights.
Our Indian Constitution was written after a thorough analysis of the existing constitution of the world. The framers of the constitution have incorporated the good things from all the places. Let us remember that democracy is not merely a form of Government but it is essentially an attitude of respect and reverence towards fellowmen.
The whole country runs according to a constitution, so respect it
By: Vinod Chandrashekhar Dixit