Home » Glossary of Indian Music (Part – 09)

Glossary of Indian Music (Part – 09)

by Rinku Khumukcham
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Collection by:
Gurumayum Shivachandra Sharma
Cultural Activist
1. Barabar Laykari: In Indian Classical Music, the basic tempo which is referred normally as an original speed as a single Bol per Matra is generally known as a Barabar Laykari. It is musically also known as the Thaah Laya. For example, the Barabar Laykari or Thaah Laya of Dadra Taal is,
2. Duggoona: In Indian Classical Music, a doubling of Barabar Laykari is commonly known as the Duggoona. So, it is the playing two Bols in one Matra. Whenever this is written in notation form, the Bols are shown as clubbed together by drawing a line under them. For example, the Duggoona Laykari of Dadra Taal is,
3. Teengoona: In Indian Classical Music, a tripling of normal Laykari in a single beat is commonly known as the Teengoona. So, the playing of three Bols in one Matra is the Teengoona. Whenever this is written in notation form, the Bols are shown as clubbed altogether by drawing a line under them. For example, the Teengoona Laykari of Dadra
4. Chougoona: In Indian Classical Music, a quadruple of a normal tempo within a single beat is commonly known as the Chougoona. So, it is the playing of four Bols in one Matra. Whenever this is written in notation form, the Bols are shown as clubbed altogether by drawing a line under them. For example, the Chougoona Laykari of Dadra Taal is,
5. Kayda: The word Kayda derived from the word ‘Kaid’ meaning ‘to cage or bind’. So, in Indian Classical Percussion Music, an amazing piece of Bols or beats in a fix rule or particular way of doing something is known as the Kayda of a Bol. For example, a simple Kaida of Dadra Taal is,
6. Palta: In Indian Classical Percussion Music, a variation of various Bols as an ornaments like Alankar of Sangeet Swaras are known as the Palta. And also, this Palta is a section of the whole Kayda.
7. Rela: The word Rela comes from the word ‘Rail’ meaning the fast. So, in Indian Classical Percussion Music, a fast rendition of a Taal composition that follows specific, shorter structures is musically known as the Rela.
8. Tihai: In Indian Classical Percussion Music, the musical phrase that perform thrice to arrive at the beginning matra of Soma is called the Tihai. It will be also the last part of the Taal composition. There are two kinds of the Tihais, namely, a) Bedama Tihai and b) Damdar Tihai respectively,
9. Padhant: The term Padhant is derived from a Hindi wword ‘Padhna’ meaning “to read, study or recite”. So, in Indian Classical Music, the recitation of rhythmic syllables during a performance is generally known as the Padhant. And it is closely associated with the percussional instrument such as Tabla, Khol, Pakhawaj, etc,. and also use in the recitation of rhythmic patterns before performing a classical dance like Kathak.
10. Taalki Dasa Prana: In Indian Classical Music, according to the Narada Grantha Makaranda, there are Ten 10 major important soul in a Taal, they are generally known as the Taalki Dasa Pran. They can be describe as,
i. Kaal: In Indian Music, the meaning of Kaal is the time in which singing, playing or dancing is taking place,
ii. Marga: In Indian Music, when a Taal completes its journey by holding a particular speed from its first volume to its final volume, it is called its Marga. There are Four kinds of Margas, namely, a) Dhurba Marga, b) Chitra Marga, c) Vartik Marga and d) Dakchhin Marga respectively,
iii. Kriya: In Indian Music, the method of showing a Taal by hand is called the Kriya. There are only two types of Kriyas, namely, a) Sashabda Kriya, and b) Nishabda Kriya respectively,
iv. Anga: In Indian Music, the various divisions or sections of a Taal is called the Anga which is composed by a set of Matras. There are Six 6 types of Angas, namely, a) Anusadrutam, b) Dritam, c) Ladhu, d) Guru, e) Plutum and f) Kakpada respectively,
v. Graha In Indian Music, the place where a Taal begins is called the Graha. There are Four 4 types of Grahas, namely, a) Samagraha, b) Bishamagraha, c) Atitagraha and d) Anagatagraha respectively,
vi. Jati: In Indian Music, Taal’s rhythm types are considered as his caste or his Jati. There are Five 5 Jatis of the Taal, namely, a) Trashya Jati (groups of 3 matras), b) Chaturashra Jati (groups of 4 matras), c) Khanda Jati (groups of 5 matras), d) Mishra Jati (groups of 7 matras) and e) Sankirna Jati (groups of 9 matras) respectively,
vii. Kala: In Indian Music, the meaning of Kala is a score which is called quantity in music,
viii. Laya: In Indian Music, the tempo of a Taal is simply known as the Laya. There are Three 3 main Layas, namely, a) Vilambit Laya, b) Madhya Laya and c) Drut Laya respectively,
ix. Yati: In Indian Music, various types of the tempo of a rhythm are known as the Yati. There are Five 5 types of Yatis, namely, (a) Sama Yati, (b) Shrotabaha Yati, (c) Mridanga Yati, (d) Peepilika Yati and (e) Gopuchha Yati respectively,
x. Prastar: In Indian Music, as similar as Peshkar, Kayda, Rela, etc,. are expanded by Palta in a Taal, this action is called the Prastar.

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