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Nuclear is used for human welfare

by Vijay Garg
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While living in America, Einstein did a lot of work on the development of the atomic bomb.  But when these atomic bombs were used on Hiroshima and Nagasaki, they wept.  He had not even dreamed of such destruction.  After this nuclear attack, Einstein continued to teach about the peaceful uses of nuclear energy throughout his life.
Ever since man started trying to know and understand the nature around him on earth, many kinds of discoveries and inventions were made from that time till today.  Every discovery has taken man one step ahead on the path of progress.  The four lectures of Albert Einstein in the theory of gravitation, the foundation of the research about the earth, space and gravity etc. initiated and promoted by scientists such as Galileo, Euclid and Newton over the past several centuries, and gave rise to inertia in physics.  There was great upheaval.  Einstein gave these lectures in early 1921 at Princeton University in America.  He had also predicted gravitational waves a hundred years ago, which has been confirmed only a few years ago.
Which invention had the most contribution in the progress of the knowledge that man has acquired so far, it can be a matter of dispute, but there is no doubt that the discoveries and inventions which revolutionized the progress of knowledge include ‘relativism’.  The place of ‘theory of’ is prominent.  At the end of the nineteenth century, two dark clouds were visible in the often cloudless sky of physics, and from one of them the theory of relativity was born.  Due to new inventions, the errors of long-standing theories were especially visible and the need to analyze even the fundamental assumptions which were superstitious till then.
It is true that in the development of science, the principles considered to be fixed are being improved (or even discarded if necessary) many times.  But as was struck by the presentation of Newton’s theories on physics and philosophy, Einstein’s theory of relativity struck an even stronger blow.  That is why he is counted among the greatest scientists of the world.  The world celebrates his birthday as ‘Genius Day’.
Albert Einstein was born on 14 March 1879 in the small town of Ulm, Germany.  From childhood, Einstein had a keen interest in science.  Einstein was very talented in mathematics, but not in other subjects.  When they were fifteen years old, their family settled in Milan, Italy.  From there he was sent to Switzerland for studies.  He appeared in an examination to get admission in the University of Zurich in Switzerland, but failed.  After preparing for one more year, he again appeared in the same examination, then he got admission.  It was in Switzerland that the real development of his talent in mathematics and physics took place.  In 1900, he completed his studies and took the citizenship of Switzerland.  After this he started teaching, but due to no place being suitable for his ideas, he got a job in the Patent Office of Switzerland.
At the same time, he fell in love with a student named Mileva Marish from Yugoslavia and married her in 1903.  It is in the year 1904.  In those days Einstein used to take his younger son for a walk in Prague.  He also had a diary with him.  Regardless of where the car stopped, they would start solving maths and physics problems in it.  Later on seeing this diary it was found that he had solved many problems in it to understand the universe.  In 1905, when Einstein was twenty-six years old, he received a PhD from the University of Zurich.  In the same year five articles related to his research were published in a famous journal of physics.  Einstein’s fame spread throughout the world from these articles.
In one of these research papers, he had told that when light falls on metals like potassium, tungsten etc., electrons start emitting from these metals.  These electrons are called photo electrons.  This effect is called photoelectric effect.  He was awarded the Nobel Prize for his discovery of the photoelectric effect of light.  In the second research paper, he researched Brownian motion.  According to this principle, the motion of freely moving particles in any fluid is due to continuous collisions with the molecules of the fluid.  In the third article, he introduced the world famous theory of relativity.
In this article, he proved that physical quantities like mass, distance and time (which are assumed to be constant) also change with velocity.  This theory created panic all over the world.  In this article, he proved that there is no existence of a medium like ether.  This theory was so complex that only a few scientists in the world could understand it at that time.
In the fourth article, he presented a revolutionary idea about the equivalence of mass and energy.  According to this idea, if one pound of matter is converted into energy, it will produce energy equal to the energy produced by burning seven million tons of dynamite.  On the basis of this principle, the atomic bomb was made, which momentarily ruined the cities of Hiroshima and Nagasaki in 1945 in World War II.  In the fifth article, he proved that light travels in the form of particles.  These particles are called photons.  In 1916, he published a paper on the general theory of relativity, which shed light on the gravitational properties of the universe.
By 1933, Hitler’s dictatorial rule had been established over Germany.  A lot of hatred was fueled against the people of the Jewish community.  Jews were being crammed into concentration camps.  On this Einstein stood in opposition to Hitler.  Due to Hitler’s displeasure, he finally decided to leave Germany.  In those days Einstein went to America to give a speech.  Then some of his friends wrote him a letter, warning him not to return to Germany, because a big indictment had been made against him.  After this Einstein stayed in America and became a professor at Princeton University.
While living in America, Einstein did a lot of work on the development of the atomic bomb.  When these atomic bombs were used on Hiroshima and Nagasaki, Einstein wept.  He had not even dreamed of such destruction.  After this nuclear attack, Einstein continued to teach about the peaceful uses of nuclear energy throughout his life.  Einstein was not only a scientist but also a great priest of peace.  In one of his messages, he had prayed to mankind to end the war.  A new element has been named einsteinium to honor him.  Today, more than sixty-five years have passed since his death, but his brain is still preserved at Princeton Hospital.  It has been studied in many hospitals and scientists are still trying to understand the mystery of Einstein’s scholarship.

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