Sunday Health Care : Breast Cancer

Sunday Health Care : Breast Cancer

Written By: / Other News / Sunday, 26 June 2016 16:56

Dr. Ajit Lukram
MBBS, DNB Gen Surgery
Conslutant GI & Gen. Surgeon
Fellow Colo rectal, Breast & Endocrine, Carlisle, United Kingdom

What is breast cancer?
Breast cancer is a kind of cancer that develops from breast cells. Breast cancer usually starts off in the inner lining of milk ducts or the lobules that supply them with milk. A malignant tumor can spread to other parts of the body. A breast cancer that started off in the lobules is known as lobular carcinoma, while one that developed from the ducts is called ductal carcinoma.
The vast majority of breast cancer cases occur in females. This article focuses on breast cancer in women. Breast cancer is the most common invasive cancer in females worldwide. It accounts for 16% of all female cancers and 22.9% of invasive cancers in women. 18.2% off all cancer deaths worldwide, including both males and females are from breast cancer.

Breast cancer rates are much higher in developed nations compared to developing ones. There are several reasons for this, with possibly life-expectancy being one of the key factors-breast cancer is more common in elderly women; women in the richest countries live much longer than those in the poorest nations. The different lifestyles and eating habits of females in rich and poor countries are also contributory factors, experts believe. The breast, like any other part of the body, consists of billions of microscopic cells. These cells multiply in an orderly fashion-new cells are made to replace the ones that died.
In cancer, the cells multiply uncontrollably and there are too many cells progressively more and more than there should be.
Cancer that begins in the lactiferous duct (milk duct), known as ductal carcinoma, is the most common type. Cancer that begins in the lobules, known as lobular carcinoma, is much less common.

What is the difference between invasive and non-invasive breast cancer?
Invasive breast cancer – the cancer cells break out from inside the lobules or ducts and invade nearby tissue. With this type of cancer, the abnormal cells can reach the lymph nodes and eventually make their way to other organs (metastasis), such as the bones, liver or lungs. The abnormal (cancer) cells can travel through the bloodstream or the lymphatic system to other parts of the body; either early on in the disease, or later.
Non-invasive breast cancer – this is when the cancer is still inside its place of origin and has not broken out. Lobular carcinoma in situ is when the cancer is still inside the lobules, while ductal carcinoma in situ is when they are still inside the milk ducts. “In situ” means “in its original place”. Sometimes, this type of breast cancer is called “pre-cancerous”, this means that although the abnormal cells have not spread outside their place or origin, they can eventually develop into invasive breast cancer.

What are the signs and symptoms of breast cancer?

A symptom is only felt by the patient and is described to the doctor or nurse, such as a headache or pain. A sign is something the patient and others can detect, for example, a rash or swelling.
The first symptoms of breast cancer are usually an area of thickened tissue in the woman’s breast or a lump. The majority of lumps are not cancerous; however, women should get them checked by a health care professional.
According to the National Health Service, UK, women who detect any of the following signs or symptoms should tell their doctor:

About the Author

Maheshwar Gurumayum

Maheshwar Gurumayum

Maheshwar Gurumayum, Sub-Editor of Imphal Times is a resident of Sagolband Salam Leikai. He has been with Imphal Times since 2013. An avid adventure lover, writes mostly travelogue. He can be contacted at [email protected]

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