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Sanjenbam Jugeshwor Singh

Sanjenbam Jugeshwor Singh

Sanjenbam Jugeshwor Singh is a regular contributor of Imphal Times. Presently, he is teaching Mathematics at NIELIT. Jugeshwor can be reached at: [email protected] Or WhatsApp’s No: 9612891339.

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Noise Pollution & its effect

 Noise pollution is generally defined as regular exposure to elevated sound levels that may lead to adverse effects in humans or other living organisms. According to World Health Organization (WHO) sound levels less than 70dB (decibel) are not damaging to living organisms, regardless of how long or consistent the exposure is. Sound that cause discomfort to the ears that produce unpleasant effects or are unwanted are considered to be noise. Noise pollution generally interferes with normal activities, e.g. conversation or sleeping. The normal conversation is about 60dB, a lawn mower is about 90dB and a loud rock concert is about 120dB. In general sound above 85dB are harmful depending on how long and how often you are exposed to them and whether you wear hearing protection such as earplugs or earmuffs. Continuous noise, intermittent noise, impulsive noise and low frequency noise are four different types of noise according to their source and nature. Noise pollution is caused by the noise when the level of noise gets increased than the normal level in the environment. Excessive amount of noise in the environment is unsafe for the living purpose. Unpleasant sound causes various disadvantages in the natural balance. High volume noise are unnatural and create difficulty in escaping those generated noises. In such a modern and technological world, where everything is possible through electrical appliances at home or outside the home, the risk of noise has been increased to a great extent. Increasing the demand of urbanization and industrialization in India, is causing major exposure of people to the unwanted sounds. The sound we make in our everyday life like loud music, unnecessary use of Television, phone, traffic, dog barking and etc. noise creating sounds have become part of the urban culture, as well as most disturbing things causing headache, sleep disturbance, stress etc. Those things causing disturbances to the natural rhythm of life are called as dangerous pollutions.
        Industrialization is putting our health and life at risk because all the (big or small) industries are using big machines producing high pitch sound in large amounts. Other equipment                (Compressors, generators, exhaust fans, grinding mills) used in the factories and industries also produce big noise. Regular social events like marriages, parties, pub, club, disc or place of worship temples etc create nuisance in the residential areas. In our Manipur also such things are happening most of the time as we experienced during Holi (Yaosang) festival, Lai haraoba and during many other occasions. During Yaosang, in day time, clubs organizing Yaosang Sports used loud speakers and shouted IN-OUT, IN-OUT from all places in Manipur valley. And in the night time the loud sound of THABAL CHONGBA disturbed many people making sleepless even up to the late night. During the LAI HARAOBA also, loud sound can be heard from the early morning in the form of Lai Pena Yakaiba, then maibi laimang famba when the sun’s heat strike all people at around 10 to 12 o’clock. In the afternoon, from around 2pm again started traditional Lai haraoba dance with loud sound of band party which will continue up to late night. Not only this, we also experienced the same problem during Druga Puja or Panthoibi Erat thouni time augmented with Housie play. What a horrible life we are living in the name of religion, tradition & culture!! Even yesterday, one of the most responsible person of our state announced to organize Thabal Chongba anywhere in Manipur to express happiness of announcing as Manipur will be an ILP state during crucial examination time of all schools in Manipur.  Can’t we carry out all these activities & rituals even without loud speakers? Again non-stopped noise of crackers in various parts of India during Druga puja and Diwali as well as the noise of diesel autos in Khwairamban Keithel are not the least to be mentioned.   Poor urban planning may give rise to noise pollution, side-by-side industrial and residential buildings can result in noise pollution in residential areas. Some of the main sources of noise in residential area include loud music, transportation noise, and lawn care maintenance, nearby construction, explosion or young people yelling (Sports games). Noise pollution associated with household electricity generators is an emerging environmental degradation in many developing nations. The average noise level of 97.60 dB obtained exceeded the WHO value of 50dB allowed for residential areas. Research suggests that noise pollution is the highest in low-income and racial minority neighborhood. Documented problems associated with urban Environment noise go back as far as ancient Rome. Noise pollution causes various hearing problems (damage to ear drums and loss of hearing) because of the unwanted sound. It reduces ear sensitivity to the sound required to regulate body rhythm. It affects the psychological health and cause the occurrence of aggressive behavior, sleep disturbance, stress, and weakness, fatigue hypertension, cardio-vascular diseases including other severe and chronic health issue in later life. It creates communication problems and lead to misunderstanding. It also affects wildlife and makes pets more aggressive. In animals, noise can increase the risk of death by altering predator or prey detection and avoidance, interfere with reproduction and navigation and contribute to permanent hearing loss. It also affects the plants and causes poor quality crop production. The effects that noise has on children may be permanent. Noise poses a serious threat to child’s physical and psychological health and may negatively interfere with child’s hearing and behavior.
       Constitution of India guarantee right to life, right to information, right to religion and noise. Section 133 empower human being to remove a public nuisance on a conditional or permanent order. Noise pollution control Rule 2000 under Environment protection Act 1996 involves controlling the growing problem of noise pollution. Factories Act Reduction of noise and oil of machineries limits for noise exposure in work zone. Motor vehicle Act involves the use of horn and change of engines. Indian penal code deals with the health and safety issues caused by the noise pollution. One can be penalized under law of torts. Increasing level of noise pollution has created the urgent need of general awareness about the sources, effects and preventive measures of noise pollution. High level of noise should be prohibited in the areas like working place, Educational institutes, and residential areas etc. Understanding, planning and implementing strategies to get prevented from the noise pollution has been necessary to curb within time. Young children and students should be motivated not to get involved in the high sound producing act like use of high sound generating equipment and instruct on the occasions. Use of high level sound generating fire crackers should be reduced during the occasions like festivals, parties, marriage etc.  Subjects related to the noise pollution should be added to the textbooks and activities can be organized in the schools like lectures, discussion etc. so that new generations can be more aware and responsible citizens.         
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Climate Change &Agricultural hurdles in Manipur

Manipur is one of the mega biodiversity hotspots in the World and has a treasure trove of various flora and fauna. Manipur has abundant natural resources viz, soil, water, forest etc. The environmental sustainability Index (ESI) is very high and was ranked 2nd in India during 2011.Loktak Lake, the largest freshwater lake in N-E India is located in Manipur. There are four major river basins namely, Barak river basin( 9041 Sq.km catchment area) in the west, the Yu river basin in the east, the Manipur river basin( 6332 Sq. km catchment area) in the center part and a portion of Linyi river basin in north. The total water body in the state covers approximately 56.46 thousand hectares. However the hydrological system has been altered due to climate change and human pressure. An area of 1699.40 thousands hectares is under forest cover with seven types of forest class viz; tropical; semi evergreen; moist deciduous; east Himalayan wet temperature; Sub-Alpine; Grassy Blanks; bamboo brakes & cane brakes forest. However, the state is vulnerable to soil erosion due to its undulating topography, steep slope and high rainfall. Approximately 2190 thousand hectares have been classified as eroded area. Deforestation and practices of Jhum cultivation accelerated erosion. It was reported that about 1189 thousand hectares of the state comes under different soil loss classes under water erosion, 2232 thousand hectares area come under degraded  and wasteland category and 1597 thousand hectares is affected by soil acidity.
         Manipur, one of the eight sisters of north –eastern region of India, is a hill grit state situated at the lower tip of the sub-Himalayan range. Resembling most of the northern states of India, the economy of the state primarily depends on agriculture and allied sector. Though the total land under agriculture is only 6.74% of the total geographical area, it provides livelihood of more than 52% of the total population of the state. Rice being the staple foodcrop, accounts about 95% of the total food grains production and covers about 72% of the total cropped area of the state. Besides rice other cereals such as maize, wheat etc. and pulses along with various kind of fruits and vegetables are also grown in both valley and hilly regions. It is to be noted that permanent cultivation is practiced in all the districts of valley regions whereas terrace cultivation is followed in some parts of hill districts but Jhumming or shifting cultivation is widely adopted in most of the hill districts. Agriculture in Manipur is characterized by rugged terrain, wide variation in slopes and altitudes, community land system and conventional cultivation practices. Agricultural production is mostly rain-fed, monocrop and at subsistence level. Use of local varieties, limited use of agro-chemicals, low moisture retention capacity of upland soil and lack of irrigation facilities  along with traditional management practices have resulted in low crop productivity and low cropping intensity.  As agriculture is the mainstay of the economy of the state, sufficient growth in this primary sector is inevitable to boost economic development. Growth in overall economy depends on development of the agricultural sector. So it can be assumed that the growth in farm sector is a necessary pre-condition for economic development. Growth in the agricultural sector could be catalyst for national output growth via its effect on rural incomes and provisions of resources for transformation into Industrial economy.
    Manipur has been affected by the changing climate. Trend analysis of weather variables in Imphal under National Innovation on Climate Resilient Agriculture (NICRA) revealed that the mean annual maximum temperature (1954-2014) has been increasing ( 0.10C per decade). The mean annual minimum temperature has also increased significantly (0.30C per decade). The total annual rainfall recorded during 1954 to 2014 also increased (23.5mm per decade); however a decreasing trend was observed in February, June, July and November rainfall (-10.8 to -0.1 mm per decade). The mean annual rainy days (1954-2013) showed an increasing trend. Decreasing trend in total monthly rainy days was observed in January, February, and April, June and July. The mean annual maximum Relative Humidity(RH) increased significantly ( 3.8 % per decade)  from 1985  to 2013, whereas  the mean minimum  RH ( 1985 -2013)  showed  a decreasing  trend( -1.6% per decade). The mean monthly maximum RH, increased significantly (3.0 to 5.6 per decade) throughout the year. Similarly decreasing trend was observed in mean monthly minimum RH (- 3.2% to -0.6% per decade) for all month except May (1% per decade).The temperature is projected to rise by 1.70C by the end of 21st century. The southern districts are expected to experienced higher temperature than that of northern districts. Total annual precipitation is expected to increase throughout the state. Extreme precipitation events will cause crop yield variation. Increase in pest and disease incidence as well as erosion and degradation of soil is also expected. Projected increase in evaporation and runoff will decrease the soil moisture recharge. Fresh drinking water could also become scarce. With rise in surface temperature the plant species are expected to move upward. Decrease in microbial population is projected with increase in altitudes. Loss of vegetation could cause top soil erosion. Loss of Bio-diversity and extinction of rare or threatening flora and fauna are also projected. Food grain production and requirement of the state have been estimated to be 77105 and 79323 thousands tones by 2050. Hence Manipur will be in deficit of 2218 thousands tones food grains by 2050.
     However, agriculture sector in Manipur is now facing the consequences of climate change which is a reality and an increasing trend in temperature, precipitation and emission of greenhouse gasses has been observed in Manipur. A subsistence level farming is coupled with prevalent shifting cultivation, the small and marginal farmers will be most affected due to this climate change. Hence there is an urgent need for devising climate proof plan and climate ready policy for climate compatible agricultural development in Manipur. Location-specific, climate smart technology basket need to be devised or introduced and should be demonstrated through participatory approach for ensuring a climate resilient production systemand a climate resilient ecosystem.  The interaction between the system’s adaptation strategies and mitigation potential should also be given due importance in the action plan for combating climate change.

Social Unrest in N-E Regions

Civil unrest may be described as disputes, disagreement, quarrels, fights, violence and wars between individuals, groups and nations. It may be observed that the problems of underdeveloped &poor regions of India like North-Eastern States are ethnic, religious and communal civil unrest among others which poses serious threat to peace, security and progress of the region. Therefore in regions like N-E states where different ethnic groups claiming one form of deprivation or the other and attempt to increase share of power and wealth is a prevailing situation. It also worth noting that conflict may be functional or dysfunctional. Dysfunctional conflict result into civil unrest, destructive in nature and leading to loss of lives and property, time, investment opportunity, hunger and malnutrition.
Obite (1999) opined that the breakdown of vehicle of social control agents such as family, education. Law, religion and political system has increased ethnic and communal civil unrest. He further asserts that civil unrest arises from the pursuit of divergent interest, goals and aspirations by individual or group in defined social and physical environments. It is worth noting that the manifestation of the failure of Indian/ state government to provide good governance and forge national integrated government as well as the inability of many homes to meet the economic needs of its members has increased the persistent civil unrest in society. In a related development, Deeka(2002) asserts that the eruption of civil unrest can be linked with group pluralism and interactions to achieve their diverse objectives. While Jega(2002) in his own opinion states that in seeking relevance or retention of political power, the elite manipulates religions and ethnic sentiments , it can be noticed that a range  of ethnic clashes and sectarian conflagrations are deep rooted in the context of the group conflict theoretical hypothesis. In addition, Abah (2009) view, civil unrest as form of violence, modernized on the basis of a great range of social injustice and inequalities prevailing in a state. In this respect, the aggrieved people rationalize their opposition leading to civil unrest in the states on the basis of seeking the correct prevailing social injustice and inequalities in the states. This form of civil unrest often result to direct physical attack in reaction to and defense against acts perceived as unjust and inequitable in the society.
It can be observed that since its inception as colonial regions to independence and post-independence can really describe N-E states as one of the most divided region (especially Manipur) along religious or ethnic background. It can be observed that since its inception as colonial state to independence and post- independence, Manipur as a country/state has been facing a perennial or state legitimacy, which often challenged its efforts on state-national cohesion, democratization, stability and economic transformation. The ethno-religious civil unrest are set of actions that are the product of intermediary bourgeois who manipulates ethno-religions bigotry in order to maintain their exploitations of masses. Civil unrest has been a part of human history. Hence it has been there in the history of all human races for ages. It is prevalent characteristic of most of the developing world /region. The ethnic groups fight because they are denied not only their biological needs but also psychological needs that relate to growth and development. These included people’s needs for identity, security, recognition, participation and autonomy. Civil unrest in N-E regions, especially in Manipur where such needs of citizens are hardly met by the government due to bad governance. Whenever such non-negative needs are not met, the next thing is civil unrest which is inevitable in the society. One of the main causes of prolonged or complicated civil unrest is people’s unbending force to meet their unmet needs leading to civil unrest.At the same time the intention of union government to introduce Citizenship AmendmentBill (CAB) in the current session of Parliament further make people unrest in the whole N-E States. Peoples apprehension is that if CAB is passed then there will a population explosion in the region which in turn will pave a way for the outsiders to be a citizen of India/the region which will definitely affect the indigenous people of the region badly. Not only this due to Indo-Naga framework pact ,the contents of which may  affect the territorial, cultural and  administrative integrity of Assam, Manipur and Arunachal Pradesh again make people of these three states terribly unrest as the verbal assurance given by Union government is not satisfied by the people which led the boycotting of SANGAI TOURISM Festival 2019 in Manipur. Citizens of North-Eastern states especially Manipur, believe that our legitimate identity, participation in affairs of local indigenes / settlers syndrome which really affecting our social interaction and relationship in the society.
In a related development, stresses are needed or like interest cannot be traded, concealed or bargained for. Meaning, it is important the involvement of all the interested parties in finding and developing acceptable ways to meet the needs of all concerned groups. Consequently, resolving civil unrest such as ethno-religious coloring, people’s needs values and interest should be put into consideration for attaining sustainable development in the society. It is worth noting that provisions of basic needs such as health services, education, employment, good roads and security among others which are important to human survival will reduce tensions that may lead to civil unrest. The unequal distribution of scarce resources and process of getting them become desperate and highly competitive and often leading to serious civil unrest, armed robbery, drug & human trafficking and organized crimes that are detrimental to achieving sustainable development in the society. It is noted that the socio-economic, political and ethno-religious factors are key players in the causes of civil unrest in N-E regions particularly in Manipur. Ethno- religious differences have created intolerance and serious tensions among the citizens creating unwanted distrust and fear. Therefore it has become vital for the citizens to know the danger civil unrest poses to strengthening and deepening the social co-existence among the people of N-E states. In order to strengthen and deepen social relationship for sustainable development of the region, the citizens of the region particularly the people of Manipur need to shun all forms of civil unrest for the development of our state & union government should also listen to the voice of our people against the passage of CAB and people’s demand of disclosing the contents of Indo-Naga Framework Agreement.

Music: An Elixir

         Music is a fundamental attribute of the human species. Virtually all countries, from the most primitive to the most advanced, make music. It’s been true through history and it’s true throughout an individual’s lifespan. In tune or not, we humans sing and hum; in time or not, we clap and sway; in step or not we dance and bounce. The human brain and nervous system are hard-wired to distinguish music from noise and response to rhythm and repetition, tones and tunes. Is this a biological accident or does it serve a purpose? It’s not possible to say. Still a varied group of studies suggests that music may enhance human health and performance.
Music is an art form and cultural activity whose medium is sound organizes in time. General definition of music include common elements such as pitch (Which governs melody and harmony), rhythm(and its associated concepts, tempo meter and articulation), dynamics (loudness and softness) and sonic qualities of timber and texture which are sometimes termed the color of musical sound. Different styles or types of music may emphasize, de-emphasize or omit some of these elements. Music is performed with a vast range of instruments and vocal techniques ranging from singing to rapping; there are solely instrumental pieces, solely vocal pieces (such as songs without instrumental accompaniment) and pieces that combine singing and instruments. In many cultures, music is an important part of people’s way of life ,as it plays a key role in religious rituals, rite of passage ceremonies, social and cultural activities, ranging from amateur Karaoke  singing to playing in an amateur funk band or singing in a community choir. People may make music as a hobby, like teen playing Cello in a youth orchestra or work as professional musician or singer. Many ethnographic studies demonstrate that music is a participatory, community based activity. Music is experienced by individuals in a range of social settings ranging from being alone to attending a large concertforming a music community which cannot be understood as a function of individual will or accident; it includes both commercial and non-commercial participants with a shared set of common values. Musical performance take different forms in different cultures and socio-economic milieus.
         Music, though is an integral part of human social and cultural activity, it is also used as clinical therapy. Music therapy is an interpersonal process in which a trained therapist used music and all of its facets – physical, emotional, mental, social, aesthetic and spiritual –to help clients to improve or maintain their health. In some instances, the clients’ needs are addressed directly through music; in others they are addressed through the relationships that develop between the
Client and therapist. Music therapy is used with individuals of all ages and with a variety of conditions, including psychiatric disorder, medical problem, physical disabilities, substance abuse issues, communication disorders, interpersonal problems and aging. It is also used to improve learning, build self-esteem, reduce stress, and support physical exercise and facilitates a host of other health related activities. Music therapists may encourage clients to sing, play instruments, creates songs as do their musical activities. Like any other sound, music arrives at the ear in the form of sound waves. The external ear collects sound waves and the ear canal funnels them to the eardrum. As the waves strike the eardrum, they cause it to vibrate. The vibration are relayed along the chain of tiny bones in the middle ear until they reach the third bone, the stapes, which connects to the cochlea.The cochlea is a busy little world of its own. It is filled with fluid that surrounds some 10,000 to 15,000 tiny hairs cells or cilia. Vibrations of the stapes send fluid waves through the spiral-shaped cochlea. The fluid waves produce swaying movements of the hair cells. In turn, these cells release chemical neurotransmitters that activate the auditory nerve, sending miniature electric currents to the auditory cortex in the temporal lobe of the brain.From there, things gets even more complicated. Studies using MRI and positron emission tomography (PET) scans suggests that nerve networks in different parts of the brain bear primary responsibility for decoding and interpreting various properties of music. For example, a small area in the right temporal lobe is essential to perceive pitch, which forms the basis of melody (patterns of pitch over time), chords (several pitches that sound at the same time) and harmony (two or more melodies at the same time). Another nearby center is responsible for decoding timbre, the quality that allows the brain to distinguish between instruments that are playing the same note. A different part of the brain, the cerebellum, processes rhythm, and the frontal lobes interpret the emotional content of music. And music’s powerful enough to be “spine-tingling “can light up the brain’s reward center much like pleasurable stimuli ranging from alcohol to chocolate.
      One of the earliest mentions of music therapy was in Al- Farabi’s treatise “Meaning of the intellect” which described the therapeutic effects of music on the soul. Music has long been used to help people deal with their emotions. In the 17th century, the scholar Robert Burton’s “The Anatomy of Melancholy” argued that music and dance were critical in treating mental illness, especially melancholia. He noted that music has an excellent power- to expel many other diseases and he called “it’s sovereign remedy against despair and melancholy”. He pointed out that Antiquity ,Canus,aRhodian fiddler, used  music to make a melancholy man merry- a lover more enamored,a religious man more devout. In the Ottoman Empire, mental illness were treated with music. In November 2006, Dr.Michael J Crawfordy and his colleagues also found that music therapy helped schizophrenic patients. Albert Einstein had lifelong love of music (particularly the works of Bach and Mozart), once stating that life without playing music would be inconceivable to him. In some interviews Einstein even attributed much of his scientific intuition  to music, with his son  Hans recounting  that “ whenever he felt that he had come to the end of the road or into a difficult situation in his work, he would take refuge in music and that  would usually resolved all his difficulties. Even, C.V Raman, Dr.APJ Abdul Kalam( associated with Veena) & many other famous scientists had very close to a musical instrument and a form of music.  Research has revealed that music stimulates all areas of the brain. Because of this, music directly affects our sense, making it a multisensory experiences involving the auditory, visual and tactile senses. As a result music can have a direct impact on individual’s physical, emotional and cognitive functioning.
         Music that is soothing and relaxing can help students to beat stress or anxiety while studying. Background music may improve focus on a task by providing motivation and improving mood. During long study sessions, music can aid endurance. Classical music is peaceful and harmonious, making it one of the best options to listen to when studying. It seems that there is evidences that Mozart improve mental performance. They call it the “Mozart’s effect”. If you want exercise your brain, listen to music. It provides a total brain work out. Research has shown that listening to music can reduce anxiety, blood pressure and pain as well as improve sleep quality, mood, mental alertness and memory. There have been lots of studies done which prove that listening to classical songs helps to boost your memory and also help you to concentrate better on whatever or you are doing.  According to a study, people who listened to Mozart’s music showed an increased in brain wave activity that’s linked directly to memory. Thus, Music is no doubt an elixir