Monday, 23 March 2020 - Imphal Times

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Imphal, March 23

After getting positive response to the call for Janata Curfew across the nation by Prime Minister Narendra Modi to collectively fight the spread of Coronavirus, which is haunting the entire planet, Manipur government announced total shut down till March 31.

Spokesperson of the state government Th. Bishwajit, while talking to a group of media persons at his official quarters today morning said that the decision to extend the total shut down was taken during state cabinet meeting held today at the Chief Minister’s office.

“The state cabinet meeting held today with Chief Minister on the chair after deliberation had decided to enforce total shut down till March 31”, Bishwajit said while adding that the government too knows that people will face various hardship particularly to those who are living on hand to mouth. For that the cabinet has decided to distribute the share of PDS items to all NFSA card holders and those with CMHT cards for month of April in advance at free of cost.

“As the government is serious about those people who are living on hand to mouth the state cabinet has decided to hand over the PDS item share for the month of April in advance to NFSA card holders as well as to CMHT card holders”, Bishwajit said.

The state cabinet also resolved to exempt the grocery shops and shops selling essential commodities to be open so that people do not face problem in buying their daily needs, however, the government spokesperson appealed the people to come out only one person from a family to buy the essential items.

“Either in Rural or in Urban area all grocery shops and those selling vegetable should be open”, The spokesperson of the Manipur government who is also the Works and Power Minister said to reporters.

All those who are in health care service, essential services including electricity water supply are relaxed from the total shut down. The cabinet meeting also resolved that those in the Medical department should make sure to identify people and conduct home quarantine with strict surveillance. The Directors of RIMS and the JNIMS had also been advice to utilize the dedicated buildings as isolation wards for time being.

Regarding the unavailability of hand sanitizers, Minister Bishwajit said that some PHD scholars of the Manipur University had produced hand sanitizers and the government after verification with experts will make them prepare soon. However, he said that frequent washing of hands with soaps is also useful and people need not worry as long as they follow the guideline.

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Mumbai, March 23

A steep hike by 15 cases of coronavirus, was registered, with total tally of “covid 19” positive cases reaching 89, even as a lock down was imposed in urban areas in Maharashtra on Monday.

The death toll across the country rose to 8 with a Philippines man passing away after initial recovery in Mumbai on Monday. The countrywide death toll stood as- Karnataka 1, Delhi 1, Maharashtra 3 ( including two earlier cases and the death of a 68-year-old man from the Philippines in Mumbai on Monday), Punjab 1, Bihar 1 and Gujarat one. Total =8.

In Maharashtra, out of 15 patients, 14 patients were admitted to Mumbai hospitals, while one patient was admitted to a Pune hospital, Maharashtra Health Minister Rajesh Tope said and added that the two patients in Mumbai have been admitted to ICU.

In another development, production of printing currency notes was stopped at India Security Press in Nashik in Maharashtra till further notice and 4000 odd employees were directed to remain home and standby to resume work, after normalization of situation. The ordnance depot at Jabalpur in Madhya Pradesh has already been locked down till 24 March, 2020. Due to coronavirus scare newspaper vendors stopped home delivery of daily morning newspapers in Mumbai from Monday.

While Maharashtra government shut its borders with neighbouring Goa, the Gujarat government shut its border with Rajasthan, Madhya Pradesh and Maharashtra in the wake of novel coronavirus outbreak.

Total number of positive coronavirus cases in the country on Monday morning rose to 415 (69 new cases in 14 states) and Bihar became 22 nd state to be affected by Covid 9 with three confirmed cases and one death on Sunday.

Maharashtra has reported the highest number of Covid-19 cases at 89, followed by Kerala at 52. Delhi has reported 30 positive cases, while Uttar Pradesh has recorded 27 cases. Telangana has reported 22 cases, Rajasthan 24, and Karnataka 26 patients.

While Prime Minister Narendra Modi  on twitter lamented that Many people are not taking lockdown seriously, Maharashtra Chief Minister Uddhav Thackeray too expressed concern with presence of vehicles in large number plying on streets on Monday morning.

Equity indices plunged on Monday with bench mark Bombay Stock Exchange (BSE) sensex diving more than 3500 points as the lockdowns escalated. Earlier trading was halted for 45 minutes after sensex plunged by 3000 points. After trading resumed the sensex fell by 3500 points and Nifty below 7750 levels.

The 263 Indian students evacuated from Rome by a special Air India flight were sent to ITBP Chhawla Quarantine Facility on Monday.

Meanwhile, the disease pandemic has continued to spread in locked-down Italy, with the total cumulative number of infected cases reaching 59,138 and deaths 5,476. Globally, more than 341,234 people have contracted the novel coronavirus and at least 14,746 have died. 

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Thoubal, March 23

Combined team of state police and the BSF under the supervision of Thoubal District Police Superintendent Dr. S. Ibomcha Singh, MPS arrested three persons including a leader of Reformist Students’ Front (RSF) from various parts of Thoubal district in connection with the IED blast that took place near BSF E-Coy, Wangjing Tekcham Leikai at around 7.30 pm yesterday.

All those arrested along with explosive materials were today paraded before media persons today morning.

Talking to reporters SP Dr. S. Ibomcha said that soon after the blast, combined team of state force and BSF rushed to the area and conducted Cordon and Search Operation and house to house search.

“During the search operation, a blood soaked jacket was found. We followed the blood trail up to western bank of Heirok River. We then conducted intensive search operations assisted by BSF personnel. After crossing Heirok river, while searching an area at Wangjing Wangkhei, our team surrounded two suspected houses. In that one suspected person was found hiding in an incomplete pucca house on the western side of the house one Elangbam Sanahal Singh (52 yrs) of Wangjing Wangkhei Maibam leirak”, the SP said that the person was overpowered by the team when he tried to escape and he has been picked up from the spot.

The person identified himself as one Md. Iliyas Khan (22 yrs) S/o Md. Heshamuddin Khan @ Tomba of Sangaiyumpham Pt-I, Puleipokpi. On spot inquiry, he disclosed that he along with one Phundreimayum Md. Akram Hussain (22 yrs) S/o Md. Muheiruddnn of Sangaiyumpham Pt-I. Puleipokpi planted and blasted an IED near the ECoy 113 Bn, BSF Camp at Wangjing Tekcham on the instruction of one Khumukcham Pradeep Luwang (33 yrs) S/o Kh. Mangoljao Singh of Kakching Khunou Thingnam Bokul Leikai.

Immediately, the combined team rushed to Sangaiyumpham area and conducted search operation. In that Phundreimayum Md. Akram Hussain was arrested. After that a team led by Addl. SP (Ops) Thoubal launched an operation and Khumukcham Pradeep Luwang (33 yrs) S/o Kh. Mangoljao Singh of Kakching Khunou Thingnam Bokul Leikai was arrested from near Khangabok Higher Secondary School on NH-102. He confessed that he went to Moreh along with Aribam Md. lliyaa Khan (22 yrs) S/o Md. Heshamuddin of Sangaiyumpham Pt-I Puleipokpi in January 2020 and met the commander of the banned UG group PREPAK namely S/s Comdr. Tamocha and one of his cadre at Myanmar. They taught about the assembly of IED and planned about the IED attacks on Security Forces.

SP Ibomcha informed the media persons that Tamocha delivered the materials necessary for IED. Khumukcham Pradeep Luwang and Md. Iliyas Khan assembled one IED which was planted and blasted on 22/03/2020 near E-Coy 113 Bn. BSF Wangjing Tekcham Leikai by Md. lliyas Khan and Md. Akram Hussain under the instruction of Khumukcham Pradeep Luwang who was instructed by s/s Comdr. Tamocha of PREPAK.

On the disclosure of Khumukcham Pradeep Luwang, 7 (Seven) detonators, Explosive chemicals weighing 2.530kg. 1 (One) Electronic Circuit, One Multimeter with wires, One Remote Control Device, One Dry Battery (9 Volt). 3 (Three) Mobile Handsets were recovered from the house of Aribam Md. iliyas Khan (22 yrs) Slo Md. Heshamuddin of Sangaiyumpham Pt-I Puleipokpi. 

It may be mentioned that Aribam Md. lliyas Khan (22 yrs) s/o Md. Heshamuddin Khan @ Tomba of Sangaiyumpham Pt-l. Puleipokpi is the Organization Secretary of RSF (Reformist Students Front), Thoubal Branch.

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New Delhi, March 23

Yet another racial attack occurred amidst the pandemic COVID-19 at the capital city of Delhi. At around 9.30 p.m. just after the “Janta curfew” ended, two Delhi University students went out of their PG to get some groceries when a man in his 40s on a white colored two wheeler drove by and spat paan from mouth on to the girls aiming for their faces.

This uncivilized incident took place near the University campus at Vijay Nagar, Single storey - North-West Delhi. The street was deserted because of the curfew and the man in question took this as an opportunity to carry forth his devious action.

A complaint has been raised to the Delhi Police right after the incident. Due to the affect of the pandemic spread of the disease, most hostellers and PG residents from the North-East has left for their respective hometown. This has made a rapid decline of the number of people from the region staying at the capital, making them more vulnerable to the discrimination.

Racial Discrimination against the North-eastern residents in the capital is no news. There have been cases where people have actually died because of such discrimination.

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Imphal, March 23

Self proclaimed Chief Minister of the De Jure Government of Manipur in Exile, Yambem Biren Singh along with the Members of the Manipur State break silence to the decision of the Leisemba Sanajaoba, which he term as the head of the council, the Maharaja of Manipur, over his decision to contest election for the lone Rajya Sabha seat as BJP candidate  
 “The Chief Minister with the Members of the Council humbly requested His Highness the Maharaja Leisemba Sanajaoba who is heading to enter as a member of the Rajya Sabha in the Republic Parliament of India to rethink your (Maharaja) official and monarchal position of the Office of the Maharaja of Manipur and the Throne in the Palace of Manipur for the sake of Manipuri nation and future of the State”, Yambem Biren said in a statement.
It further said that the Manipur State Constitution Act 1947 enacted by His Highness the Maharaja of Manipur as a sovereign authority on  January 1, 1947, it meant that the sovereign is the sources of law. The State means Manipur State created by the Manipur State Constitution Act 1947. Manipur State Constitution Act 1947 is a legal constitution. Manipur State Constitution Act 1947 got in codification from the Crown paramountcy. It was recognised by India (Empire of India) and the United Kingdom by the bilateral agreement made between the Government Of India by the Crown and Manipur State Darbar on  July 1, 1947. The constitutional monarchy system was introduced in the Monarchic State of Manipur since  January 1, 1947. Since then, His Highness the Maharaja of Manipur is the Constitutional Head of the State. Manipur is a democratic country but not a Republic State like the Union of India.
The Office of the Maharaja of Manipur has been functioning from the Palace of Manipur. The Manipur Palace is a dynasty and monarchal institution. It is not an ordinary house or home. The democratic right of the people of Manipur derived from the sovereign authority the Maharaja of Manipur. The Chief Minister and Members of the Manipur State Council appointed by the Maharaja Leishemba Sanajaoba by exercising his (Maharaja)  de jure sovereignty under rule 3 of the Manipur State Administration Rules 1947 which was promulgated by the Maharaja of Manipur as a sovereign authority on July 1, 1947. The Manipur State Council is an Executive Authority of the State of Manipur. The Manipur State Council decide all the administrative matters of the State on the term of resolutions in the Council Meeting and approval given by His Highness the Maharaja for passing and issuing the orders by the Chief Minister as, a Chief Executive of the State, the statement added
Since forming the Manipur state council on March 14,  2012, the de jure sovereignty of the State has been exercising by the Council in the State, therefore, the de jure Government which is in exile in London has taken up to prepare a legal petition with the legal assistance of the Barrister of Queen’s Council against the Union of India on which British law was violated by the Indian Government and the Governor-General of the Dominion of India C. Rajagopalachari while India (Dominion of India) was in His Majesty’s Dominion status. The legal petition duly made by the Barrister of Queen’s Council will be submitted to Her Majesty the Queen and further, the same petition will be referred to the Privy Council. It is a Monarchic Court. The Manipur State Council has the constitutional authority and power to refer such legal matter to Her Majesty by exercising their discretionary power under section 57 of the Manipur State Constitution Act 1947.
The Indian Government with the help of the de facto Manipur Government frequently and fraudulently attempted and tried to evict His Highness the Maharaja of Manipur from the Palace of Manipur but always failed.
In the year 2013, the de facto Government of Manipur had decided for taking over the Royal Palace of Manipur. In retaliation on such decision an official letter No. HH/POI/2/13/47 dated  August 2, 2013 addressing to the President of the Republic of India was sent from the Office of the Maharaja of Manipur with a copy to the British High Commission in India, New Delhi in connection with the illegal eviction of the Maharaja from the Palace. Simultaneously, the people of Manipur raised a strong protest for the illegal eviction of Maharaja from the Palace of Manipur. Without further delay we got official responses from the Rashtrapati Bhawan, New Delhi vide Letter No.17/08/P(I)/2013 dated August 19, 2013. Ultimately the eviction of the Maharaja of Manipur from the Palace of Manipur was held.

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Some sections of people from Manipur showed their stupidity by joining lunatics of the mainland India in mocking the Prime Minister’s initiative to control pandemic COVID 19 by announcing Bharat bandh from 7 a.m. to 9 p.m. on March 22. The reason for announcing such a public curfew has not been understood and the effort was devastated by turning the self-imposed public curfew as a festival. Unfortunately, some section of people converted the precautionary measures of Coronavirus from spreading to the citizens of India by the visionary Prime Minister of India as a festival makes it more troubling and disturbing those working taking the maximum risk to cure those infected and those working to prevent the disease from spreading among us.   What is even more unfortunate is some people of Manipur coming out on the street and celebrating it by clapping and shouting slogans without maintaining the health advisory to distance themselves for at least 2 to 3 meters, as if the public curfew is a victory in the fight as coronavirus which causes COVID -19.
Many questions arise from the inaction of the government to such violators of the health advisory. Why these people have been allowed to make a mockery of the Prime Minister’s announcement when even rituals related ceremonies are even prohibited.
Those people are all in the social networking site and their faces are seen, why none of them have been picked up and kept for quarantined at least for 14 days as the way they gathered and celebrated may get the virus transmitted in them if any persons who already have the virus may be among them.
The clapping announcement at 5 pm was to give respect and honour to those working for the prevention of spreading the disease risking their lives at the hospital and also at roads – like the doctors and other health workers and the police personnel who have been monitoring the gathering of public.
Perhaps the public curfew of yesterday was a trial or an experiment to face the odd in the coming days. According to some experts, India may face extreme situations and for that total locked down like the way that happened in Wuhan city of China may be required, at that time the government has to take extraordinary measures as it is mandatory to take up such measures in extraordinary time.
Desperate time needs desperate measures and we are at a desperate moment. The people irrespective of differences in ideology should work together and extend all co-operation to save the people of this erstwhile kingdom. Had not we showed our support it would be difficult for all of us to survive and without people’s existence of Manipur may be another history?
The idea of closing the most crowded place – Khwairambandh Keithel should not be criticized as this is the only way to keep people from social distancing, but saying so the government may face a hard time in doing so for a longer period. For that planning to make sure that adequate measures to prevent the virus from spreading to those in the market be taken up. What the police department in association with the IMC during the shutdown period needs to be appreciated. And we in the Imphal Times suggest the installation of the water tank as much as possible in all entries of the three Khwairambandh Keithel so that every customer could wash their hand. Hand sanitizers need to be distributed to all the vendor ladies, besides making them sure that their stall distances at least one meters.
Lastly, but not the least, the government should make sure that the security personnel and those health workers and doctors established cordial relationships as both need to travel any time on the road where restrictions have been imposed.

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By : Dr Mohd Mustaque Ahmed

The most taken care human part by this time is our hands. It is advised to frequently wash it.  We are not to touch by our hands to our faces including eyes, noses and mouths that often. We are all habituated to be touching our vital parts in the facial area most often. Many of us habitually prick our noses by using our fingers, don’t blame this universal habit. Although earlier miasma theory (bad air theory) was disapproved, Florence Nightingale (1820-1910) once maintained neat & cleanliness and sanitizer. COVID-19 pandemic around this time, people have started accepting the theory of cleanliness by using mask and other accessories.
Practically I knew of a plant virus TMV (Tobacco Mosaic Virus) during my undergraduate classes. In the laboratory we were supplied with this virus. After the inoculation of this virus to a live plant it started to wither within some minutes. The result was so fast it was unimaginable. That we studied of a plant virus and the credit of discovering (1892) this virus goes to Iwanowski aka D. Ivanovsky(1864-1920).  Virus (virulent=poison or agent that causes infectious disease) is smaller than bacteria and it lives as a parasite in the host living organisms and it is an acellular in nature. The reality is that virus does not survive out of its host except culturing it in an artificial nutrient medium.  
After the discovery of Electron Microscope (1931) by E.Ruska and M.Knoll, it came to know the size and structure of a virus. Virus has protein coats and either DNA or RNA but not both. Later Stanley deciphered more about TMV & proteins and F.Bawden & N.Pirie studied more about proteins and DNA of a Virus.  We heard of the deadliest viruses for e.g. Nipah virus, SARS, Ebola, Hepatitis, Cholera, Plague and HIV, all of which produces killer diseases. Thus we recognize the history of pandemic killing humans across countries in millions associated with diseases. Historically, other deadliest killer viral diseases happened viz. Antonine Plague (165 AD), Plague of Justinian (541-524 AD), Black death(1346-1353), Flu Pandemic (1889-1890), 3rd Cholera Pandemic(1852-1860), 6th Cholera Pandemic (1899-1923),  Flu Pandemic (1910 to 1911), Flu Pandemic (1918), Asian Flu (1956-1958), Flu Pandemic (1968) and HIV( peak years 2005 to 2012). These took human lives in millions. Seeing the data below human deaths resulted most from Bubonic plague (Small pox, Typhoid, Typhus) and Flu (influenza virus) and HIV/AIDS. There are complexities in the path of therapeutic development that we cannot cure HIV viruses till date.
Table 1: History of human deaths by viral epidemic/pandemic condition
In ancient time the humans were so helpless that epidemic or pandemic conditions brought ravaged of human beings and the civilizations were distorted. In 3000 BC in one of the devastation in China the death bodies were buried in mass graves or the houses consisting of many deaths were burnt down. One of its archaeological signatures of a mass grave consisting heaps of skeletons in ‘Hamin Mangha’ is still valid. It is said that this place in China was not inhabited again. Second thing, in the history the bubonic plague (may be typhoid, small pox and typhus) of Athens (541-524 AD) could be remembered which killed one by third (1 million) of its total population (3 million). It was recorded to have started south of Ethiopia. It left the famous Spartan (Greece) civilization stunned. Because it’s heroic army were totally decimated.
In the history of development of vaccine we cannot forget the contributions of Edward Jenner (1749-1823) and Louis Pasteur (1822-1895). The first one produced vaccine (1796) against cowpox and the second person produced the vaccines against cholera (1897) & anthrax vaccine of humans (1904) respectively. Then there came the invention of the vaccine against bubonic plague by W.Haffkine by the year 1897 during Bombay plague.
Modern means like Next generation sequencing (NGS) and Metagenomic approaches (MGA) have known viral novelties including new virus like a COVID-19 or novel Coronavirus or SARS CoV-2. But this time the character of the virus is typical. It can survive out of the host for some hours to some days. Like some other communicable diseases it belongs to family. SARS (Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome) coronavirus and MERS (Middle East Respiratory Syndrome) are virus of the same family of COVID-19 and the latter is difficult to deal with. COVID-19 infects lungs, airways associated with high fever, fatigue and dry cough. Symptoms may be associated with sore throat, chest congestion and runny nose also.  Structurally this has a typical spherical shape and outward projections of similar type which are different from other viruses. It is believed that it might have been originated from a bat, swine and pangolin, yet, it is to be confirmed. Genetically the virus is very near to these animals. How this has been transmitted to humans is still a mystery. But, the question remains whether it’s a mutated form of SARS Corona virus or novel one. However, it has been recently recognized by scientist that it’s a novel one.
Table 2: Present scenario of humans affected by COVID-19
We are having reports that till date there have been 12, 000 deaths, 1,90,000 still active  and 3 lakhs confirmed cases due to this virus worldwide (21/3/20, Washington Post). It is retrieved from the information that China way of blocking the spread of this disease is very determined and serious. Even some states in China have not been reached by this disease. The way it spreads to other countries is very fast and swift. It affected numerous countries because the world is becoming a global village. Surprisingly, we could see more human deaths in country like Italy.
Now the world will experience economical slow-down as predicted. Yes, there will be bad economical experience everywhere which will be borderless. There is an already political blame game with there is a suspicion theory that the virus has been created by China. This theory believes that it escaped from its testing laboratory and blah blah. Whatever it may be the human efforts are undergoing worldwide to bring to a halt to further spread of this virus. I believe this scientific effort will bring positive result and human beings will be blessed again. The situation is not at all scary that the affected persons have been cured by using medicines like Chloroquin, Lopinavir and Ritonavir. Therefore, the effort will require a lot of political courage, policies, awareness, financial input, togetherness and patience. In short, the world has to be united to mitigate the problematic virus for all time to come.  
(The writer is an Assistant Professor at Dept. of Botany, United College, Lambung, Chandel)

Published in Guest Column

By Dr Mayengbam Lalit Singh
Asst. Professor, Dept. of Economics,
Kha Manipur College, Kakching

It is very interesting to experience correlation between the phenomenon of economic disease and recent biological disease, COVID-19. Previous article “COVID-19: Possible Agent to the End to Economic Globalisation” mentions the impact of the disease on economies across the countries. The present article deals with possible remedy (policy) for economic ailment due to pandemic COVID-19. When we retrospect in the history of economics, there were two major economic collapses (depression). The first one was the Economic Depression in 1929 where major manufacturing industries were shut down. The first reason behind the economic depression was high population increase in the USA that led to high increase in demand for manufactured goods. In order to meet the demand, so many industrial units mushroomed. There were high speculations for profit motives which led to huge investments in manufacturing sectors. More and more workers were employed to produce in large scale. All this created a deflated bubble for supply of manufactured goods which overcame volume of demand. As a result, the entire volume of manufactured goods could not be sold and hence the downturn of business motives of investors. It affected synchronously on all industrial units, then economic collapse with shutting down of industries and investments along with mass unemployment. The best example we can witness is “Modern Times, 1936” by Charlie Chaplin. Classical economists with their theory “Supply creates its Own Demand” failed to explain the economic collapse. In order to correct this, the government introduced huge stimulus packages which comprised direct governmental investment to industrial units, public expenditures. These policies motivated demand, production, and supply to revive slowly and then back to normality.
The second economic collapse was the Great Depression that took place in 2008 in the financial sector in the USA. There was a huge boom in the housing sector in the USA before 2008 which led to financial sectors (both public and private banks) investing in the housing sector. There were reports of many citizens who could not build houses due to low earnings but they expected their own homes. Pulled up by demand, the construction sector built apartments and started selling in coordination with these financial houses (banks). These banks lent their money to these low earning groups of people with elastic recovery periods at minimum or zero interest rates.
Such housing sectors are quite lumpy in other words it takes a long time for full recovery. Deflated bubble in the housing sector swept away funds that were to be infused into manufacturing and other sectors. However, default of repayment by loanee in the housing sector crashed the financial sector and other sectors too in chain form. With fusion of more than US$ 600 million brought the economy back to normality.
Economists predict present economic recession in 2020 which is not similar to the previous recessions we had witnessed before. Main reasons of economic recessions in previous decades were ailment in certain economic sectors and its outbreak in other sectors. However, the main reason for the present one is pandemic COVID-19 which affects entire production, demand and supply chain in the economy. Another distinguishing feature is that there is restriction on the meeting among people or workers in the present recession, whereas in the past recession there was no restriction on the meeting among people. Without meeting among workers, it is very difficult for the economy to survive again. When we look into its impact, daily wage earners are the worst affected group in the society since they are deprived of their daily jobs due to the disease. So, types of stimulus packages in present the context will be predicted different from the stimulus packages injected during the previous recessions. The foremost sector for stimulation should be the health and pharmaceutical sectors where the government should introduce and test drugs that can cure this pandemic disease. This could revive the condition for working people and hence the entire economic sectors. At present, people are locked in their homes so that it can prevent the spread of this disease. This makes shutting down of production of goods and services at maximum level. At this critical juncture, direct injection of money supply to the accounts of people will not revive demand and supply chains, since store houses and shopping centres are empty. In order to avoid this, it is advisable that government authorities should distribute daily needs (basic food, health and clothing items) to each household so that it can prevent the gathering of people. Since the economies are under hardship of recession, productions are the bottom level. In order to avoid of crippled production, the government can channelize money in the household production where workers need not go to industrial houses, instead they can start production and assemble basic consumers’ goods in their houses. Authorities can collect these from respective households and disperse. Or in order to revive catering industry, the government can channelize funds to catering centres to prepare and distribute food to each household instead of channelizing in the bank account of households. However, the respective government except for Kerala has not yet announced stimulus packages. It is expected that many state governments will follow what Kerala government initiates.

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