Bramhacharimayum Sadananda Sharma

Bramhacharimayum Sadananda Sharma

Bramhacharimayum Sadananda Sharma is a regular article contributor of articles in Imphal Times. Sadananda has published a research paper on “development on real-time health smartwatch ”on IEEE conference.
Sadananda can be contacted at [email protected]

Thursday, 14 January 2021 17:48

Let’s Embrace Youths Self Esteem

Why most youths in our present society do feels lack of self esteem or low self worth during adolescence? Apart from educating our child with books and pencils, do our parents make any efforts to identify the inner potential sources of such influence on self worth? During a conversation between parents regarding raising a child now a days, they brings out the difficulties in expenses in giving education only, they do never bother to discuss about a child mental health and their relationship with them. A clear ideology of our parents is that education first then job in their hands means they have successfully launched a kid, just like launching a product. Ten out of hundred parents rarely ask,”What is the problem son or daughter, you look different, let me know if there is anything I can do”….this is called a transparent parents; our society is in dire need of such gesture. Often parent–child relationships are associated with adolescent self worth but researchers’ claims whether such associations may be attributable to familial confounding (e.g. genetic relatedness).
Many Researchers of the opinion that Self worth or self esteem has been defined as the level of regard that one has for the self as a person (Baumeister, Campbell, Krueger, & Vohs, 2003; Harter, 1993). High self worth indicates that a person has a positive view of her/himself, and that they believe that they are ‘good enough’. High levels of self worth are positively related to happiness (Baumeister et al., 2003), life satisfaction and well being (Proctor, Linley, & Maltby, 2009). Low self worth is associated with poor mental health, criminal behaviour, poor physical health, health compromising behaviours and poor economic prospects (Donnellan, Trzesniewski, Robins, Moffitt, & Caspi, 2005; McGee & Williams, 2000; Millings, Buck, Montgomery, Spears, & Stallard, 2012; Sowislo & Orth, 2013; Trzesniewski et al., 2006). Compelling evidence that low self worth  prospectively predicts emotional problems comes from a recent meta analysis of 80 longitudinal data sets, collectively spanning childhood to old age, in which it was reported that low self worth predicted future depression and anxiety (Sowislo & Orth, 2013).
Most of us without a doubt do understand the mechanics or chemistry behind being in an adolescence stage. It may be state as a developmental stage of particular importance to self worth and mental health, in that self worth is low for some individuals during this period, and many common emotional and behavioral problems also increase which is quite a common issues during adolescence period. During adolescence period we tends to get most of the exposure of the world both negative and positive qualities. We get influence by peer pressures, imitation of styles, languages spoken, eating habits and even the tendency to indulge in drugs and unwanted substances. However, speaking to such qualities our friends circle and our surrounding atmosphere also plays a major role in this context. Adolescence gives the idea of being independent from our parents guidance, started making decision of our own and what realities lies ahead is out of their vision, which is why a good relation has to be always maintain between a parents and child during this vulnerable stages.
Most of the Researchers working on the large scale Dunedin birth cohort have shown that low adolescent self worth predicts a range of negative outcomes 10 years later in early adulthood, including depression, anxiety, nicotine dependence, criminal convictions and multiple physical health outcomes. This pattern of associations highlights the potential importance that adolescent self worth plays in development. Identifying factors that may have a positive influence on adolescent self worth may prove to be a crucial step in identifying how mental health might best be protected during this period of susceptibility.
Several studies have shown that the parent–child relationship is related to adolescent self worth, with close, affectionate, positive relationships associated with higher levels of self-worth. All these findings suggest that positive relationships within the family may have the capacity to increase adolescent self worth, and thus improve mental health outcomes.
Not to forget our society is facing a huge drug menace and fight to counter drugs in our society is on, War on Drugs/ War against Drugs. A big burning topic in our society, debates on laws, acts, arrests, acquits….etc. But the real question is that who are consuming or using all this drugs, answer will be the pillar of our society, young generation youths of our society. It is also needed to formulate a strict measure to prevent drugs in our society, and law should not spare such creatures which are spreading like cancer day by day. Only the NGOs, CSOs and Government cannot bring a total free drug zone in a society. Families and parents should also need to play an active role and duties. They can educate them properly about drugs and substance abuse. Not only educating but to keep close observation and teaching them to introspect themselves, children should be taught to realize their own decisions and action. Dictating a child will only hampers their intelligence resulting in poor decision making in later stages of their life. After all every child is unique and possess talent, we just need to find out and help them in bringing out those hidden potentials.

Monday, 04 January 2021 17:27

Child Nutrition and Their Future

Most of the parents want their children to be bright, sharp and intelligent wants them to do better than other children. Also now a day’s giving early education is quite a trend and fashion, parents focus on giving education which is a pressure cooker system of Education in our present scenario. A student has to spend most of their time in schools and extra coaching and at home they have to cover up assignment, homework even for upcoming examinations. With this much load and pressure are we giving them enough proper balanced diets, or nutritious food to be able to grow their brain and energy? Researchers believe one of the major causes for malnutrition in India is economic inequality, is it true? What is the link between a mother and child’s undernutrition?

We need to understand the fact that undernutrition puts children at a greater risk of disease vulnerability, also adversely affects their physical, cognitive, and mental development, may adversely impact productivity in later life and increase economic inequality. Even though India is among the fast-growing economy also our country is under the largest anti-malnutrition programme. Still, India has the world’s worst level of child malnutrition. It is said that more than one third of the world’s malnourished children live in India. To be precise half of children under age of 3 are underweight and third of wealthiest children are over-nutrient.
According to Global Nutrition Report (GNP) 2020 in context of Covid-19, the virus does not treat them equally. Undernourished people have weaker immune systems, and may be at greater risk of severe illness due to the virus. At the same time, poor metabolic health, including obesity and diabetes, is strongly linked to worse Covid-19 outcomes, including risk of hospitalisation and death. While most of the Government focusing in containing the virus in turn caused food and nutrition shortages and driven governments to reduce social services, such as school nutrition programmes, that the most marginalised rely upon. In the context of food and nutrition shortages, accessibility and affordability of healthy, sustainably produced food becomes even more challenging.
Improvements in child health are a key indicator of progress towards the third goal of the United Nations’ Sustainable Development Goals. According to Research, most of the poor nutritional outcomes of Indian children are occurring in the context of high economic growth rates, but with low levels of maternal autonomy. An improvement in maternal autonomy is expected to improve a mother’s ability to make decisions regarding her children’s health and nutrition; and a more autonomous mother is also likely to have greater access to resources, may lead to the adoption of healthy and diversified diets, improve the nutritional content of diets, contribute to better food hygiene and sanitation, and thereby reduce the risk of infection and disease. Since undernutrition is the outcome of insufficient food intake and repeated infectious diseases, it is necessary to understand the links between household-level socio-economic factors and the extent to which it manifests into poor nutritional outcomes for children.
As per GNP 2020 in order to tackle injustices in food and health systems and to fix the global nutrition crisis rightly, one of their primary approach focusing on food and health. It is said that we must address inequities in food systems, from production to consumption. Current food systems do not enable people to make healthy food choices. The vast majority of people today simply cannot access or afford a healthy diet. The reasons for this are complex. Existing agriculture systems are largely focused on an overabundance of staple grains like rice, wheat and maize, rather than producing a broader range of more diverse and healthier foods, like fruits, nuts and vegetables. Meanwhile, highly processed foods are available, cheap and intensively marketed; their sales are still high in high-income countries and growing fast in upper-middle- and lower-middle-income countries. Also, we also need to focus on children nutrition inequities in health systems providing quality nutrition care for prevention or treatment in early stages. At the same time, health records and checks are to be optimised to screen, monitor and treat malnutrition, such as through assessments of diet quality and food security.
A well strengthened and dedicated governance, coordination, political commitment and accountability is crucial to address nutrition inequities, as further emphasised by the WHO Commission on the Social Determinants of Health (CSDH): In order to address health inequities, and inequitable conditions of daily living, it is necessary to address inequities – such as those between men and women – in the way society is organized… To achieve that requires more than strengthened government – it requires strengthened governance: legitimacy, space, and support for civil society, for an accountable private sector, and for people across society to agree public interests and reinvest in the value of collective action. Also, many Government policies to avail improved water, foods and sanitation facility to public and female literacy need to be continued. It is also important to provide that all the benefits of both infrastructure and more general economic and health sectors development are to be spread more evenly across districts and locality actively.
When implementing a policy or scheme, government should identify the problem first, then how to fix the problem, later on should decide how much it will impact in a society. The overall performance of the scheme should be deeply analysed. A timely and proper analysis of any programme will enable in smooth running of programme in future too. While money is being spent the government and concern official should focus on reaching every single rupee to targeted families.
A scheme or programme without any target is just like pouring water outside the cup, where resources are spent without its effectiveness. One thing is clear that many self serving people and agents inside our society which acts as a middle man making a huge profit out of all these welfare schemes and policy. And common people being bargain by shutting their voices with some mere supplies. When the voices of common people are being suppressed like this a new form of cancer is being born every day. And to everyone understanding we knew deep inside our mind that all this factors undermines in development process.

As Air-raid sirens sounded the warning during the 2nd World War. It became an almost daily part of life both in both the capital and villages. When people heard the siren they would stop what they were doing and make for a safe shelter. At same time Japanese planes came for air raid, sounds of those planes were quite loudly heard; many of us hide in a pit (Kom) in Manipuri, as narrated by Ngangbam Tocha Singh, 92 years old elderly man from Kangla Sangomshang who is once a care giver of the colonial “Sepoy” during the 2nd world war. When it comes to 2nd world war the name of Kangla will forever remain unerased from the history. Kangla being the name of an important place during the period of the great Second World War will ever remain in history even generations after generations.

The very village of Tocha, Kangla Sangomshang lies in the western bank of the Iril river which flows down southward through the village, whereas on the east of the river lies Kangla Siphai. Kangla siphai is situated to the north eastern part of Imphal the capital of Manipur, around 9 kilometres away from Imphal itself. From Chairenthong, the short bridge from Imphal Ukhrul road, taking a right turn on the inter village road eastward. As per settlement record of the government, both the places here on both sides of the river, Kangla Siphai and Kangla Sangomshang are known as the same single village as “Kangla” in short.

The word “Kangla” can be traced back to those olden days when Chandrakriti Maharaja was the reigning King of Manipur about 300 years back. Many soldiers or Siphais who guarded the royal palace of the Maharaja were made to live in this village on the riverside, and hence the place came to be known as “Kangla Siphai” afterwards.  According to old aged people “Kangla Sangomshang” was also said to be have been so named for supplying milk to the royal kitchen during those times. The word “Shangom” is milk and “Shang” meaning shed. It is said that the village had a lot of cowshed and produced large quantity of milk which is enough to serve the royal homes; hence the place came to be known as place of milk sheds.

Very near to the east of the village, stands the great Chingkhei Ching (a small mountain) as a protector of the people of this village. The place of the mountain is also regarded as the abode of the legendary king Chingkhei Ningthou. The relation between the lives of the people on both sides of the river and the Chingkhei Hill is very close that the hill itself is a good source of several things which the villagers need in their day to day life. The hill provides them with firewoods, bamboos, trees and many edible herbs and vegetables. In simple word Chingkhei hill may be called the life of the villagers.

During the time of 2nd world war, as narrated by Ngangbam Tocha, the colonial Sepoy took shelter in Kangla Sangomshang and set up their camp in Tarakonjin, a hill in Kangla Sangomshang where they kept Sten-gun, bombs, and even anti-aircraft gun etc. They captured the area from Chingarel (a small hill situated near Ukhrul road, which is currently Assam rifles camp) to Ningthoubung for constructing their camp. Planes are kept hidden in bushes covering by black tent, grass and leaves to protect from enemies air raid. He works for 7/8 years for the colonial Sepoy assisting them in guarding the plane and camps protecting from cattle and intruders. He even took care of their horses cleaning and feeding in returns as a monthly salary they paid some amount and it was huge during those times, he said.

According to Tocha Second World War or Japan Lan in local term is something new in their life, living in such a small village which is an outskirt area in those days. They find it hard to understand the war which is havocking and shaking the earth. Villagers including Tocha’s parents were always having this fear and panic of war bombing and attacks during those days. They even locked down their house early before night time. But Tocha being a small boy he never had those fear and panic instead he himself enjoys being around those planes, guns and Armies during those days. Japan Lan created huge panic even around neighboring villages. Before the war elders of the villagers of neighboring villages used to meet and talks about various rituals, religious, social matters as a means of time passing, but the war brings a lot of changes in and around villages.

One memorable and witty moment for Tocha is that being a teenager he was interested in how an airplane work and fly. So, he keeps a close watch on how the armies handle all those control and procedure to fly. Not so long to his boyish imagination he thought he acquires enough knowledge to fly an airplane, out of curiosity and desire one fine day seeing a situation, narrating the story suddenly Tocha exclaimed that he had no clue how come he was inside the airplane then he started the engine, and he pushes a paddle the plane started moving slowly, but he got panic and shout for help, meanwhile, all the armies came out and stop the plane, one of the flying commander even slap him but didn’t get any severe punishment, Tocha made a soft smile.

During those times when the Japanese bombed Imphal town on Sunday, the 10th May, 1942 there was no airport in Manipur.  In fact, the only airport in the North Eastern Region of India at that time was at Dinjan, near Dibrugarh. Koirengei Airfield was constructed during 1942-43 with the help of American Engineers. The other two main all weathers airfields constructed in Manipur during World War II were the Tulihal and Pallel airfields. Three other fair weathers airfields were also made during this period at Thoubal, Sapam and Kangla Siphai.

All these airfields did play a big role in saving Manipur from the clutches of the invading Japanese Army.

Tocha added, there were many army resided in Kangla, foods were supplied by army aeroplanes sometimes through air drop. They sometimes eat our indigenous food but being a spicy food they could not take it often. He continued, during war time many villagers fled to other neighbouring villages specifically in Tumukhong, Moirangpurel, Sabungkhok, Pukhao etc and settle there by doing agricultural work for survival. Even some of Tocha’s relatives and friends fled away in fear of war. Since there were no proper land settlement and demarcations during those days, there were huge opportunities for many villagers shifting from one village to another in search of least war prone areas. Not only were those, villagers from Kangla Sangomshang also displaced to the other side of Iril River (Kangla Siphai) so as not to injure when bombing. However, many villagers do also returns after war ended. He said, even though there were many bomb explosions near the village, there was no report of casualty, only one cattle was injured in bombing.

In those days, the primary occupation of the villagers were mainly depends on agricultural work. Among the villagers, one or two were employed in Government Departments in the post of “ameen” (one who demarcate lands) and clerks.  It will be hard for us to visualise the situation of that time, there were big airfield with planes in different directions and many army camps, arms and ammunitions were stored which are needed for war, he added. Amidst war zone life was simple for them few stalls of women vendors can be seen selling pans, sweets, cigarettes are being opened.

Ever since the war started villagers in Kangla Sangomsang and Siphai were impacted in some ways. As most of the villagers used to depend their source of income and livelihood by doing agricultural works. The War created a cease in work in different activities including cutting of woods from hills for charcoals, building and constructions, raising cows in fields...etc. But as life has to go on, some minor activities still continues for survival.

One unique performance which they saw first time during war time is that many armies from camps of Indian armies along with workers were there performing drills every morning which is quite new for them. Their special moment during that time lies in the grazing field located at the southward of Kangla village that links with the northern outskirt of the Angom village. It was also the grazing ground of that time, being a vast grassy plain, was made into a sports complex by the British Army and as such different games like football, athletics, rugby, volleyball, softball and Indian kabaddi etc were played and practiced there every day by Indian armies and Britishers.

Besides army men, a few interested young men of the villages too joined the game. According to Ngangbam Tocha he also participated in the practiced of certain games like football in which he acquire a lot of skills and tactics, one day he was playing with the armies and he kick the ball with all five toe and he got injured, there the army gave him first aid and necessary treatment. During those times many tournaments of different games were held and conducted by the Anglo Americans which encamped in and around the Kangla air field. On the western boundary of this field, lies a small hillock known as Tarakonjin, a popular playing place for all youths. During war time, there stood a big tent on that hillock, said to be the camp of a general and in it many big British and American officers held meetings and discussions there.

At first many villagers of Kangla were petrified seeing large number of soldiers, planes, camps and ammunitions even though war continues. Tocha believes that armies were settled there to help and rescue the villages so he helps them and guide in many ways. However, his parents and friends keep warning and advised him to stay away from all this issues. Villagers find it hard to keep close with the soldiers at first but some of the soldiers were kind enough and open minded, they even offers foods and cloths to some of the villagers. Slowly the fear and tension inside the villagers mind goes away. Later on the armies and villagers continues to keep a distance relation inside the war zone.

Recalling the past, eyes misted over with tears he continued that, after the war, as a token of appreciation for his work, the colonial “Shipoy” presented a certificate and also ask him to visit their country independently and presented a pistol along with a Sten-Gun. But those entire precious certificates were thrown in river where many were arrested for keeping those things at that time. The old aged Ngangbam Tocha recalled his memory in a sweet voice and said those days were quite a troublesome time compared to today’s situation. But with the grace of god we survive and those sweet and troublesome memories become our source of happiness. People were generous and kind helping each others, sharing things between friends and neighbours were a part of life. Most of my childhood’s friends are not with me anymore, “I missed them a lot” were his words wiping his eyes filled with tears, with his khudei.

Reference: Koirengei Airfield: From airfield to a historical site or a parking space? Writer: Retd Lt Col M Ranjit Singh;

The 2nd World War in Manipur & My Childhood, Author: Kh. Nimaicharan Singh, Published by: Kh. Ratankumar Singh, Imphal


Wednesday, 02 December 2020 18:04

Overview of Crime & Mental Disorder

One cannot deny the fact that our present society is facing a rapid surge of criminality and violence among both men and women. Violent crimes, includes all offences involving physical violence or threat, domestic violence, rape, murder, robbery, unlawful threat, molestation etc. Among the criminals there are ample possibilities of silently suffering from mental disorders. Most of the recent findings indicate that many persons who suffer from mental disorders are also substance abusers which lead to the hypothesis that the criminality is associated with alcohol and drug abuse.
Crime is symptom or outcomes of numerous complex factors. The major causes of criminal behavior lie in the social processes and structures. Most of the people commit crimes due to the process of socialization that does not develop strong sense of right or wrong and due to the emerging opportunities, the extensive desires that act as strong motivation for taking to crime to fulfill these desires. The origin of crime can be traced to interplay of various social, economic, demographic, local and institutional factors. Among various criminal the most dangerous are the one who are silently or unknowingly suffered from mental disorder and which is tough to distinguish as most of the offenders seems to be normal and healthy.
A researcher name SHEILAGH HODGINS (Department of Psychology, University de Montreal, Canada) after evaluating explanations of different criminality and criminal behavior of subject with mental disorders. It is proposed that there are two types of offenders with mental disorders; the early starter which displays a stable pattern of antisocial behavior from a young age and the late starter begin offending only at about the time the symptoms of the disorder become apparent. Also those who developed mental disorders were found to have higher risk for criminality as compared to subjects with no such disorders. The offenders with mental disorders committed multiple offences of all types. On the contrary among the non-disordered, the proportion of subjects beginning their criminal careers decreased with age and maturity.
According to an experiment conducted in Sweden (Swedish Metropolitan Project), males who eventually developed a disorder, one-third were registered for a criminal offence before the age of 18, another seven percent between the ages of 18 and 21 and 10% after the age of 18. This pattern of age at first conviction is different from what was found for the non-disordered males where 18% were registered before the age of 18years, Seven percent between the ages of 18 and 21, and five percent after the age of 21. It suggests that there are two groups of offenders with mental disorders; one group who began offending early before the symptoms of the mental disorder would have been present, and a second group who began offending in adulthood when the disorder is likely to have been noticeable.
Also as per the reports mentally disordered are not arrested for small offences, but they are arrested more often than the non-disordered because most of them behave aggressively and have the tendency to commit crime without hesitation more often.
In India crime rate registered per lakh population went up marginally to 385.5 in 2019 as compared to 383.5 in 2018. A total of 51.56 lakh cognizable crimes comprising 32.25 lakh Indian Penal Code (IPC) crimes and 19.30 lakh Special & Local Laws (SLL) crimes were registered in 2019. A total of 28,918 cases of murder were also registered during 2019. Disputes (9,516 cases) were the motive for the highest number of murders during 2019 followed by ‘personal vendetta or enmity’ (3,833 cases). Crime against women registered a total of 4.05 lakh cases in 2019 which is 7.3% increases compared to 2018.
The National Crime Records Bureau (NCRB) 67th Edition of “Crime in India- 2019”, an annual report on crime of the year states that the primary presumption that the upward swing in police data indicates an increase in crime and thus a reflection of the ineffectiveness of the police is fallacious. However, there are several reported cases where police personnel committing or involving in crime, smuggling of drugs, rape and assaults which is a clear sign of misuse of power and position. The tradition of corruption and favoritism inside the police department lead to the easy escape of many culprits and making their crime nexus stronger.
All these findings and reports show the importance of careful documentation and analysis of a person’s history of antisocial behavior or activities by family members, as well as friends, juvenile records, hospital records and police records. Any suspicious behaviour must seek for proper treatments and counseling which is a better solution before committing any severe crime or offences. Preventing crime means working together with communities, learning about their problems, and designing unique solutions to these problems. A small delay in our part may give everyone a lifetime of pain and regrets.

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