Sanjenbam Jugeshwor Singh

Sanjenbam Jugeshwor Singh

Sanjenbam Jugeshwor Singh is a regular contributor of Imphal Times. Presently, he is teaching Mathematics at JCRE Global College. Jugeshwor can be reached at: [email protected] Or WhatsApp’s No: 9612891339.

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Wednesday, 09 December 2020 17:43

Human Capital Flight & Skill Development

Brain drain is a slang term indicating substantial emigration or migration of skilled human resource for trade, education etc. Why do talented people leave their countries and go abroad? What are the consequences of such migrations especially on the educational sector? What policies can be adopted to stem such movements from developing countries to developed countries? Abrain drain sometimes called human capital flight can result from turmoil within a nation, the existence of favorable professional opportunities in other countries or from a desire to seek a higher standard of living. Brain drain causes countries, industries and organizations to lose a core portion of valuable individuals. The term often describes the departure of groups of doctors, health care professionals, scientists, engineers or financial professionals. When these people leave, their places of origin are harmed in two main ways. First, expertise is lost with each emigrant, diminishing the supply of that profession. Secondly, the country’s economy is harmed because each professional represents surplus spending units. Professionals often earn large salaries so their departure reduce consumer spending in that region or the country overall. Brain drain can occur on several levels. Geographical brain drain happens when talented professionals flee one country or region within a country in favor of another. Organizational brain drain involves the mass exodus of talented workers from a company, often because they sense instability, a lack of opportunity within the company or they may feel that they can realize their career goals more easily at another company. Industrial brain drain happens when skilled workers exit not only a company but an entire Industry. Several common causes of precipitate brain drain on geographical level including political instability, poor quality of life, limited access to health care and a shortage of economic opportunity. Immigration of theoretical physicist “Albert Einstein” to United States to escape Nazi’s prosecution is an example of human capital flight as a result of Political change. These factors prompt skilled and talented workers to leave source countries for places that offer better opportunities. Organizational and industrial brain drain is usually byproduct of a rapidly evolving economic landscape in which companies and industries unable to keep up with technological and societal changes, lose their best workers to those that can.
Nearly four decades back, the idea of individual and professionals migrating to different places worldwide in pursuit of lucrative careers and world-class education was a massive achievement for Indians. This was primarily because; India simply did not have the professional prospectus that other countries offered. However many professionals chose to return to their country in the new millennia with an intention to create business opportunities. Become contributors to capital inflows in the country and accelerate the Indian economy to introduce it to the global market. Today, India is just a decade away from changing its status into a developed and Superpower nation but unfortunately history is repeating itself. This time, millennial are leaving the country not for the dearth’s of jobs on their domestic shores but in search of better standard of living and quality of life, higher salaries, access to advanced technology and stable political conditions across international borders – to Canada, Australia, European countries and more. This rising exodus of Indian professionals is definitely benefiting the host countries but it is becoming a growing cause for concern for economic health of India,
When Indian expatriates migrate abroad in search of greener pastures, the country ends up losing its major skilled workforce. In the age of Fourth Industrial Revolution, where technology has proven to be both a disruptor and a creator of employment in India, why is this failing to-hold back its talented and skilled individuals from moving abroad for good? Higher education is one of the major reasons for permanent immigration. Considering the recent scenario of “Sky-rocking cut-off”for admissions reaches close to 100% in top Indian Universities, many students end up compromising on their dream of occupying a seat in any of the prestigious Indian universities as they have an advantage over students from other countries in terms of skills and knowledge. Considering the global exposure and excess to high-quality life and facilities, not only do the students become reluctant to return home, even the country’s skilled workforce decides to step out to match pace with their peers who are doing well abroad. At present, a lot of educational institutions in the country are giving importance to textbook education and theoretical learning which fails to equip students with skills that will make them job-ready. This ends up creating a wide gap between industry and academic knowledge. As per the latest India skill Report, only 47% of students coming out of educational institutions in India are employable. This clearly points to the need for broadened access to both formal, basic and higher education system as well as investing more on reskilling and up skilling of the students and the present workforce so that they skip the idea of stepping out of the country. Human capital is precious for the growth of any nation. It can be referred to as people equipped with the knowledge and skill sets suitable for contributing towards economic value. But people are not born with the same skill set or knowledge. They usually acquired it through education and skilling which directs us to the need for constant up skilling of India’s existing workforce. This will eventually make them eligible for enticing professional opportunities with higher earnings with the country, thereby dropping their urge for migration.
As the boundaries between different domains are fast blurring, students cannot be restricted to single-stream knowledge. Emphasis should be given on Industry-Academia partnership as they keep educational institutions in tune with changing industry requirements and drive them to introduce programs that respond directly to their demands. On the other hand, companies can also help themselves updated with the right knowledge and skills by approaching specialized training and skilling organizations as consultants. Such specialized consulting organizations help in streamlining the process of training and development. They leverage the latest technology tools and the expertise of their experienced, qualified and certified trainers and subject matter expert to help employee transform their abilities and levels of productivity. They conduct highly focused and industry relevant courses, programs and workshops after garnering a clear understanding of the organizational goals as well as values and ethos. This helps employees adapt to the learning environment that will offer them increasing levels of challenge and overtime. While India is putting its best foot toward to curb brain drain by prioritizing skill development through its “National Skill Development Mission”, aiming to train approximately 400 million people across the country by 2020, stopping the movement completely won’t be possible. The key is to simply emphasize evolving skills in the workforce through the right training programs that will help in strengthening the country’s human capital. With better human capital presence, India will indeed reach new levels of inclusive growth and sustainable development.

Wednesday, 02 December 2020 18:05

Millet(Chanal): A Soldier for our health

Millets are a group of highly variable small seeded grasses, widely grown around the world as cereal crops or grains for fodder and human food. Millets are important crops in semi-arid tropics of Asia and Africa ( especially in India, Mali, Nigeria and Niger) with 97% of millet production in developing countries. The crop is favored due to its productivity and short growing season under dry, high-temperature conditions. Millets are indigenous to many parts of the world. The most widely grown millet is pearl millet which is an important crop in India and parts of Africa. Finger millet, Proso millet and foxtail millets are also important crop species. Millets may have been consumed by humans for about 7,000 years and potentially had “a pivotal’ role in the rise of multi-crop agriculture and settled farming societies. Generally, millets are small-grained, annual, warm-weather cereals belonging to the grass family. They are highly tolerant of draught and other extreme weather conditions and have a similar nutrient content of other major cereals. The various species of millets were initially domesticated in different parts of the world, most notably, East Asia, South Asia, West Asia and East Africa. However the domesticated varieties have often spread beyond their initial area. Specialized archaeologists called palaeothno-botanists, relying on the data such as the relative abundance of charred grains found in archaeological sites, hypothesize that the cultivation of millets was of greater prevalence in prehistory than rice, especially in northern China and Korea. Millets also formed important parts of pre-historic diet in Indian, Chinese Neolithic and Korean Mumum societies. In 2016, global production of millet was 284 million tons led by India with 36% of the World total. Niger also had significant production.
Earlier Millet was used as fodder for animal cultivation but slowly it started getting a wide recognition as a popular food grain across the globe. After a massive shift in the food culture, people started consuming only gluten-free products. Millet started getting its deserved attention after that vital shift and now it has slowly become a food staple like rice and wheat in most of the houses. Especially in India, people have slowly started including millet in their diets, from children to adults; everyone can have a cup of millet during any time of the day to enjoy its innumerable health benefits.
According to experts, millets are rich in Niacin, which helps your body manage more than 400 enzyme reactions. Niacin is also important for healthy skin and organ function. In fact, it’s such an important compound that it’s after added to processed food to enrich them. It is also an excellent source of beta-carotene. This natural pigment acts as both an antioxidant and as a precursor to vitamin A, helping your body fight off free radicals and supporting the health of your eyes. Millet is low in simple carbohydrates and higher in complex carbohydrates, making it a low glycemic index (GI) food. This means, millet takes longer to digest than standard wheat flour. Low –GI food, can help keep your blood sugar from spiking after eating, which allows people with diabetes to manage their blood sugar levels more easily. Millet is rich in dietary fiber, both soluble and insoluble. The insoluble fiber in millet is known as a “prebiotic” which means it support good bacteria in your digestive system. Fiber is great for your stomach; it will ensure that you have proper digestion and absorption of nutrients in the body due the bacteria in digestive system created by millet fiber. This type of fiber is also important for adding bulk to stools which helps keep your regular and reduces your risk of colon cancer.
Apart from being gluten-free, this whole grain is filled with an array of essential nutrients. It is very low in calories but extremely rich in magnesium, bioactive compounds, fiber as mentioned and other important minerals and vitamins. Millets are a vital part of a well-balanced diet and moderate consumption of this whole grain is linked with effective weight loss. Processed foods or foods grains don’t contain a lot of nutrients. And on top of that processed items can caused more harm, whereas, this gluten-free grains is the powerhouse of various nutrients which is proven to aid in weight loss. It contains a lot of fibers, proteins and vitamins which effectively can aid in shedding those extra inches. Including fiber-rich foods is really beneficial for people who want to shed those extra kilos as per experts and researchers. Millets are rich in phosphors; iron, calcium, zinc and potassium which are vital nutrients required for proper function of the human metabolism system. When you have well balanced diet, automatically you feel energized and amped up for burning fat. Also millet has a high content of magnesium that helps in keeping coronary diseases at bay. It also vital regulating blood pressure and preventing heart stroke. Due to the presence of ample amount of antioxidants, it also aid in eliminating the free radicals from the body and keeping oxidative stress in control. Thus it can be concluded that including this super nutrients food in your daily diet can amp up the health quotient. Therefore even if you are following gluten –free diet also, you can now effectively lose your extra weight by adding this nutritious food grain in your diet.

Thursday, 26 November 2020 17:11

The Dying Green Gold of Manipur: Bamboo

Manipur, the state of North-East India, known as “The Land of Jewel or Switzerland of East/India”, due to its breathtaking blue hills, charming scenery and natural endowments. Its assorted topography and distinctive climatic conditions, fashioned diverse forest types in the state i.e. Tropical Semi Evergreen, Dry Temperate Forest, Sub-Tropical Pine and Tropical Moist. By virtue of these speckled climatic surroundings, various species of bamboos are found flourish here, both in hills and in the valleys. In Manipur, approx.3268 area is under pure bamboo brakes which is 18.6% of the total forest area of the state and nearly all the bamboo species of North-Eastern India are found nurturing here. Hollow woody culms, widespread rhizomes system, elaborate branching and erratic flowering are some of the unique characteristics of this poaceae family members. In Manipur, it is an ethnicity to raise bamboo in homesteads as they provide vital uses for subsistence of rural livelihood. The want of bamboo subsists from childbirth to death as they are used in house construction, fuel, fodder, food, tools, religious ceremony etc. In forest fringe villages of Manipur, dependency on bamboo is much more than any other part of the state not because of its multipurpose use only but because it is associated with their legends also. Due to this, foremost species of bamboo have been selected and preserved by dwelling ethnic and tribal communities and thus it is rightly to say that they are the real protectors of forests biodiversity.
There are 51 species of bamboos in Manipur. Out of these UTANG, UNAL, SANEIBI, MARIBOB, KHOKWAA, MOUBEEWAA, WAAK etc. are popular bamboo species in Manipur. Bamboo plays a vital role in the life of Manipuri’s in their day-to-day requirements. It has multiple uses and is used in almost all the household needs for construction, craft, fencing, rituals, firewood, rope, food, utensils and paper manufacturing. Rice prepared inside tender hollow bamboo known as UTONGCHAK, that is full of flavor is offered to guest during festive occasion. Bamboo shoots both in raw and fermented form are largely consumed by the people and can earn a large share of household economy. Bamboo shoots locally called USOI are young tender culms of the bamboo plants arising from the underground rhizomes. They have been used as an important food ingredient in this region since ancient time and constitute a range of delicacies. During rainy season, all the bamboo species produce young shoots which are harvested from forest and home gardens and are used for domestic consumption. Not only in fresh form but bamboo shoots are also consumed in various forms. The raw/ fresh shoots are known as Soidon or Soijin and fermented bamboo shoot as Soibum. The fermented form (Soibum) , owing to their unique aroma and texture are very popular and consumed profoundly in the state. Annual consumption of 2188 tons of fresh ( Soijin/ soidon) bamboo shoots and 114.3 tons of Fermented ( soibum) shoots have been reported from the state. Despite the tremendous popularity of bamboo shoots as traditional food resource in the state for long time, only 15 species are available on the extend of its edible species. According to experts and researchers bamboo shoots of Manipur are gaining worldwide popularity because of its nutrient components, high fiber and low fat content. According to them, the bamboo shoots have good amount of proteins, amino acids, carbohydrates, fiber and low amount of fat. Protein content ranged from 1.88 to 3.25 gm. per100gm fresh weight of bamboo shoots. Young edible bamboo shoots are rich in various mineral elements such as calcium, potassium, sodium, iron, selenium etc. Bamboo shoots are labeled as a heart protective vegetable because of its high content of potassium that helps to maintain normal blood pressure and a steady heartbeat. In fact, bamboo shoot is one of the most precious medicinal plants found in Manipur because of medicinal values present in its young shoots.
There is no end to the use and utility of bamboo. Bamboo craft is traditional Manipuri craft and is intricately entwined with the Manipuri lifestyle. It is extensively practiced in almost every Manipuri household. Not a single day of a villager’s life goes by without the use of bamboo in different forms. Bamboo is found to be used myriad ways to create large varieties of articles which are more or less used in the day-to-day lives of the natives of Manipur. The products produced by artisans here are not only aesthetic in look but are also highly functional in nature. Unfortunately the practices of this crafts have now reduced considerably. Among the North-East states, Manipur ranks second in terms of the production of various bamboo crafts, the first being Tripura. The bamboo crafts of Manipur have a huge variety that range from traditional to modern creations. Crafts like Sofa Sets, Murahs, mats basketry, tray, chairs, table, flower vase, ashtray, headgears, ornaments, bamboo combs, smoking pipes, musical instruments, umbrellas, pitchfork, bows and arrows, anklets and wristlets and other decorative and utility articles. Many of the parts for the loin –looms, fly shuttle looms etc. are made of bamboo. The bamboo craft of Manipur in fact may be classified as decorative bamboo craft, utility bamboo craft and commercial bamboo craft. Moreover Manipur is also known for its beautiful baskets created by tribal people for their own use.
A bamboo can grow easily with least labor and time, cultivation aspect are least considered. The high potential can be improved by suitable scientific intervention and local capacity building, which will have great implications in improving the socio-economic status of community. Bamboo resources will not only increase per capita income of the state but also the life of rural household. Till date the management of bamboo resource has many constraints with lack of post-harvest treatment and technology for product development, inadequate trained manpower and inadequate infrastructure for large harvesting in the event of gregarious flowering. Although bamboo species conserving and protecting in forest fringe villages by them have not been received proper attention, in terms of diversity, distribution and utility pattern. Also due to indiscriminate exploitation, annihilation of forests and changing scenario of rural standard of living, the bamboo of Manipur is in the process of continuous degeneration. Thus there is urgent need to document and determine the present status of bamboo species growing in fringe villages, so that the measures can be taken well in advance to conserve this “GREEN GOLD” of Manipur.

Wednesday, 18 November 2020 18:03

Reality & Probability

Probability is the measure of likelihood that an event will occur. It quantifies as a number between 0 and 1, where loosely speaking 0 indicates impossibility and 1 indicates certainty. The higher the probability of an event the more likely it is that the event will occur. A simple example is tossing of a fair (unbiased) coin. Since the coin is fair, the two outcomes (head& tail) are both equally probable. In this case the probability of head and tail are equal. Since no other outcomes are possible ,the probability of either head or tail is1/2( which could also written as 0.5 or 50%)These concepts have been givenan axiomatic mathematical formalization in probability theory which is used widely in such areas of study as arithmetic, statistics ,finance, gambling science (in particular physics),artificial intelligence/machine language learning ,computer science, game theory and philosophy to draw inference about the expected frequency of events. Probability theory is also used to describe the underlying mechanics and regularities of complex system. When dealing with experiments that are random and well defined in a purely theoretical setting (like tossing a coin) probabilities can be numerically described by the number of desired outcomes divided by the total number of all outcomes. For example, in tossing a fair coin two times the possible outcomes in first and second toss may be Head & Head, Head & Tail, Tail& Head or Tail & Tail, ie, there are four possible outcomes. Out of these four possible outcome the chance getting Head & Head is 1 out of 4 which is expressed as ¼ =0.25=25%.
The word probability is derived from the Latin Probabilities, which can also mean probity; a measure of the authority of a witness in a legal case in Europe and often correlated with the witness’s nobility. In a sense, this differs much from the modern meaning of probability, which in contrast is a measure of weight of empirical evidences and is arrived at from inductive reasoning and statistical inference. The scientific study of probability is a modern development of mathematics. Gambling shows that there has been an interest in quantifying the ideas of probability for millennia but exact mathematical descriptions arose much later. According to Richard Jeffrey, before the middle of 17thcentury, the term probable mean approvable and was applied in that sense, unequivocally to opinion and to action. A probable action or opinion was one such as sensible people would undertake or hold in the circumstances. The 16th century Italian Polmath Gerolmo Cardano demonstrated the efficacy of defining odds as ratio of favorable to unfavorable outcomes which implies that the probability of an event is given by the ratio of favorable outcomes to the total number of possible outcomes. Aside from the elementary work by CARDANO, the doctrine of probabilities dates to correspondence of Pierre de Fermat and Blaise Pascal (1654), Christiaan Huygens (1657)gave the earliest known scientific treatment of the subject. Jakob Bernoulli’s Arsconjectandi (Posthumous 1713) and Abraha de Moivre’s “ Doctrine of chance(1718) “ treated the subject as a branch of mathematics . “The emergence of probability” of Ian Hacking’s and “The Science of Conjecture” of James Franklin clearly shows the histories of the early development of the very concept of mathematical probability.
The theory of errors may be traced back to Roger Cotes’s Opera miscellanea (posthumous 1722) but a memoir prepared by Thomas Simpson (1755) first applied the theory to the discussion of errors of observation. The reprint (1757) of this memoir lays down the axioms that positive and negative errors are equally probable and that certain assignable limits define the range of all errors. Simpson also discuss continuous errors and describes a probability curve. The first two laws of error that were both originated with Pierre-Simon Laplace. The first law was published in 1774 and stated that the frequency of an error could be expressed as an exponential function of the square of the error. The second law of error is called the normal distribution or the Gauss law. Daniel Bernoulli (1778) introduced the principle of the maximum product of the probabilities of a system of concurrent errors.
Like other theories, the theory of probability is a representation of its concepts in formal terms- that is, in terms that can be considered separately from their meaning. These formal terms are manipulated by the rules of mathematics and logic and any result are interpreted or translated back into the problem domain. There have been at least two successive attempts to formalize probability, namely the Kolmogovformulation and the Coxformulation. Probability theory is applied in everyday life in risk assessment and modeling. The insurance industries and markets use actuarial science to determine pricing and make trading decision. Government apply probabilistic method in environmental regulation, entitlement analysis and financial regulation. In addition to these, probability can be used to analyze trends in Biology (e.g. Disease spread) as well as ecology (eg.biological Punnett squares). It is also used to design game of chance so that Casinos can make a guaranteed profit, yet provides payouts to players that are frequent enough to encourage continued play. Another significant application of probability theory in everyday life is reliability. Many consumers’ product such as automobiles and consumer’selectronics, use reliability theory in product design to reduce the probability of failure. Failure probability may influence a manufacturer’s decision on a product warranty. The cache language model and other statistical language models that are used in Natural Language Processing are also examples of application of probability theory.So theory of probability is inseparable component in our real life.

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