Sanjenbam Jugeshwor Singh

Sanjenbam Jugeshwor Singh

Sanjenbam Jugeshwor Singh is a regular contributor of Imphal Times. Presently, he is teaching Mathematics at JCRE Global College. Jugeshwor can be reached at: [email protected] Or WhatsApp’s No: 9612891339.

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World Environment Day (WED) is celebrated on the 5th June every year and is the United Nations’ Principle vehicle for encouraging awareness and action for the protection of our Environment. First held in 1974, it has been a flagship campaign for raising awareness on emerging Environmental issues from marine pollution, human over pollution and global warming, to sustainable consumption and wild life crime. WED has grown to become a global platform for public outreach with participation from over 143 countries annually. Each year WED has a new theme that major corporations, NGOs, Communities, government and celebrities worldwide adopt to advocate environmental causes. World Environment Day (WED) was established by UN General Assembly in 1972, on the first day of Stockholm conference on Human Environment, resulting from discussion on the integration of human interactions and the environment. Two years later, in 1974 the first WED was held with the theme “Only One Earth”. Even though WED celebration have been held annually, since 1974, in 1987 the idea of rotating the Center of these activities through selecting different host countries. This year’s focal theme of WED is “AirPollution” and the host country is the China.
       Air pollution is a global public health crisis causing unnecessary early mortality and ill health at a huge economic cost to society. It also impacts on our natural Environment altering habitats. World Environment Day 2019 is a great opportunity to increase awareness of this, the world’s most pressing environmental issue of the 21st century. Air pollution, refers to the release of pollutants into the air that are detrimental to human health and planets as a whole. Most air pollution comes from energy use and production. Burning fossil fuels releases gases and chemicals into the air. And in an especially destructive feedback loop, air pollution not only contribute to climate change but is also exacerbated by it. Air pollution in the form of carbon dioxide and Methane arises the Earth’s temperature. Another type of air pollution is then worsened by that increased heat: smog forms when the weather is warmer and there is more ultraviolet radiation. Climate change also increase the production of allergenic air pollutants including mold (thanks to damps conditions caused by extreme weather and increased flooding) and pollen (due to longer pollen season and more pollen production).
          Smog and soot are the most prevalent types of air pollution. Smog or greenhouse-level Ozone as it is more wonkily called; occurs when emissions from combusting fossil fuels react with sunlight. Soot or particulate matters made up of tiny particles of chemicals, soil, smoke, dust or allergens in the form of gas or solids, that are carried in the air. The source of smog and soot are similar, both come from cars and trucks, factories, power plants, incinerators, engine-anything that combusts fossil fuel such as coal, gas or natural gas. The tiniest airborne particles in soot whether they are in the form of gas or solids, an especially dangerous because they can penetrate the lungs and blood streams and worsen bronchitis, lead to heart attacks and even hasten death. Smog can irritate eyes and throat and also damage the lungs –especially people who work or exercise outside, children and senior citizens. It’s even worse for people who has asthma or allergies- these extra pollutants only intensify their symptoms and can trigger asthma attacks. Some of the most common hazardous air pollutants are Mercury, Lead, dioxins and benzene. These are also most often emitted during gas or coal combusting, incinerating or in the case of benzene, found in gasoline. Benzene classified as a carcinogen can cause eye, skin and lungs irritation in the short term and blood disorders in the long term. Dioxins more typically found in food but also present in small amounts in the air, can affect the liver in short term and harm the immune, nervous and endocrine system as well as reproductive functions, says JhonWalke, Director of the Clean Air Project, part of the Climate and Clean Air Program at NRDC. Lead, in large amounts can damage children’s brains and kidneys and even in small amount, it can affect children’s IQ and ability to learn. Mercury affects the central nervous system. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons or PAHs, are toxic components of traffic exhaust and wildfire smoke. In large amounts, they have been linked to eye and lungs irritation, blood and liver issue and even cancer. In one recent study, the children of mothers who’d had higher PAH exposure during pregnancy had slower brain processing speeds and worse symptoms of Attention Defect Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD).
     By trapping the Earth’s heat in the atmosphere, greenhouse gases lead to warmer temperatures and all the hallmarks of climate change: rising sea level, more extreme weather, heat related deaths and increasing transmission of infectious diseases like LYME. According to a 2014 EPA study, carbon dioxide was responsible for 81% of country’s total greenhouse gas emissions and methane made up 11%.Carbon dioxide comes from combusting fossil fuels and methane comes from natural and industrial sources including the large amounts that are released during oil and gas drilling. We emit far larger amounts of carbon dioxide but methane is significantly more potent, so it’s also very destructive. Another class of greenhouse gases are hydrofluorocarbons (HFCs) are thousands of times more powerful than carbon dioxide in their ability to trap heat. In October 2016, more than 140 countries reached an agreement to reduce the use of these chemicals which are used in air conditioners and refrigerators – and find greener alternative over time. Mold and allergens from trees, weeds and grass also carried in the air, are exacerbated by climate change and can be hazardous to health. They are not regulated by government and are less directly connected to human actions but they can be considered Air Pollution: when homes, schools or business get water damage, mold can grow and produce allergenic airborne pollutants. Mold exposure can precipitate asthma attacks or an allergic response and some molds can even produce toxins that would be dangerous for anyone to inhale. Pollen allergies are worsening because of climate change. Lab and field studies are showing that the more carbon dioxide pollen-producing plants especially ragweed are grown, in the bigger they grow and more pollen they produce worse is the condition. Climate change also extends the pollen production seasons and some studies are beginning to suggest that ragweed pollen itself might be becoming a more potent allergen.  That means, more people will suffer hay fever, runny nose, itchy eyes and other symptoms.
      Selecting “Air Pollution” as the focal theme of this year’s (2019) World Environment Day is highly significant in present day dreaded condition of air pollution all over the world and consequences we are facing. This is, we people who are responsible for all these, may be air pollution may be climate change and global warming and its effects. According to local dailies report, 65,000 tree sapling will be planted within one hour (9am to 10 am) on 5th June in the Schools and Colleges of Manipur in connection with World Environment Day 2019 under theinitiative of Education Minister Shri Th.RadheshyamSingh. In fact it’s a great step forward and highly appreciated. An Earth’s Anthem penned by poet Abhay K is sung to celebrate World Environment Day. The anthem is:
Our Cosmic oasis, cosmic blue pearl,
The most beautiful planet in Universe,
All the continents and oceans,
United we stand as flora & fauna,
United we stand as species of one earth,
Different culture, belief and ways,
We are humans, the earth is our home,
All the people and nations of the world,
All for one and one for all,
United we unfurl the blue flag.
 Let’s all sing together this anthem and join the hands together to prevent the dare consequences of all types of pollutions not only air pollution, for a better and greener mother planet Earth.

 Climatology (from Greek klima) or Climate Science is the scientific study of climate, scientifically defined as weather conditions, averaged over a period of time. This modern field of study is regarded as a branch of the atmospheric Science and a sub- field of Physical Geography, which is one of the Earth Sciences. Climatology, now includes aspect of Oceanography and biogeochemistry. Basic knowledge of climate can be used within shorter term weather fore casting using analog techniques. Chinese Scientist SHEN KUO( 1031-1095) inferred that climate  naturally shifted  over an enormous span of time, after observing petrified bamboos found underground near YANZHOU( modern day YAN’AN,SHAANXI Province), a dry climate area unsuitable for the growth of bamboos.
        Climate change occurs when changes in Earth’s climate system result in new weather patterns that last for at least a few decades and may be for millions of years. The climate system comprised of five interacting parts (i) the atmosphere (air) (ii) hydrosphere (water) (iii) Cryosphere (ice& permafrost) (iv) biosphere (Living things) (v) lithosphere (earth’s crust & upper mantle). The climate system received nearly all of its energy from the Sun with a relatively tiny amount from Earth’s interior. The climate system also gives off energy to outer space. The balance of incoming and outgoing energy and passage of the energy through the climate system, determines Earth’s Energy budget. When the incoming energy is greater than outgoing energy, Earth’s energy budget is positive and climate system is warming. If more energy goes out, the energy budget is negative and earth experiences cooling. As this energy moves through Earth’s climate system, it  creates Earth’s weather and long term averages of weather called “Climate Change “. Such change can be the result of internal variability, when natural process inherent to the various parts of the climate system alter Earth’s energy budget. Climate change can also result from external forcing, when events outside of the climate system’s five parts nonetheless produce changes within the system, For example, changes in solar output and volcanism. Human activities can also change earth’s climate and presently driving climate change through global warming.
        Here is a simple definition of global warming (Andyes, it is really happening). Over the past 50 years, the average global temperature has increased at the fastest rate in recorded history. And experts, see the trend is accelerating. All but one of the 16 hottest years in NASA’s 134- year record have occurred since 2000. Global warming occurs when carbon dioxide (CO2) and other air pollutants and green house gases collect in the atmosphere and absorb sunlight and solar radiation that have bounced off the earth’s surface. Normally, this radiation would escape into space but these pollutants which can last for years to centuries in the atmosphere trap the heat and cause the planet to get hotter. That’s what’s known as the greenhouse effect. In the United States, the burning of fossil fuels to generate electricity is the largest source of heat trapping pollution, producing about 2 billion tons of CO2 every year. Coal burning power plants are by far the biggest polluters.The country’s second largest source of carbon pollution is the transportation sector which generates about 1.7 billion tons of CO2 emission a year. India is the most vulnerable country to climate change followed by Pakistan, Philippines and Bangladesh as ranked by HSBC.  The greenhouse gases released by human activities are solely responsible for the warming climate in India. Scientist agree that the earth’s rising temperatures are fueling longer and hotter  heat waves, more frequent droughts, heavier rainfall and more powerful hurricanes. Such events started even in Manipur as we have seen recent deadly storms which was never happened before, flash flood in last year,water scarcity etc. We all know that most of our hills in Manipur have been heavily deforested, even in the catchment areas of almost all our rivers, which causes flash floods during rainy seasons and rivers all dried up during lean season. Most of our one time, water bodies & wetlands have been perished, which stopped our water cycle, disturbing mild climatic system in Manipur, causing many unexpected natural calamities which were not existed at all in the past. In 2015, for example, Scientist said that an ongoing drought in California—the state’s worst water shortage in 1,200 years – had been intensified by 15% to 20% by global warming. They also said, the odds of similar draught happening in the future had roughly doubled over the past century. And in 2016, the National Academic of Science, Engineering and Medicine announced that it’s now possible to confidentially attribute certain weather eventslike some heat waves, directly to climate change.
      The Earth’s ocean temperatures are getting warmer too—which means that tropical storms can pick up more energy. So global warming could turn, say a category 3 storm into a more dangerous category 4 storm. In fact Scientist have found that the frequency of North Atlantic hurricanes has increased since the early 1980s; as well as the number of storms that reach category 4 &5. In 2005, Hurricanes “Katrina” —the costliest Hurricanes in U.S history stuck New Orleans; the second costliest Hurricanes “SANDY” , hit the East Coast in 2012.The impact of global warming are being felt across the globe. Extreme heat waves have caused tens of thousands of death around the World in recent years. And in an alarming sign of events to come. Antarctica has been losing about 134 billion metric tons of ice per year since 2002. This rate could speed up if we keep burning fossil fuels at our current pace, some experts says, causing sea level to rise several meters over the next 50 to 150 years. Each year, Scientist  learn more about the consequence of global warming and many agree that environmental, economic and health consequences are likely to occur if current trends continue.
Here is a smattering of what we can look forward to due to global warming (i) Melting glacier,earlier snow melt and severe droughts will cause more dramatic water shortages and increase the risk of wildfires (ii)rising sea level will lead to coastal floods and eastern seaboard, especially in Florida and other areas such as Gulf of Mexico (iii) Forest, farms and cities will face troublesome new pests, heat waves, and heavy downpours and increased flooding. All these factors will damage or destroy agriculture and fisheries (iv) Disruption of habitats, such as Coral Reefs and Alpine meadows could drive many plants and species to extinction (v)Allergies, asthma and infectious diseases outbreaks will become more common due to increased growth of pollen producing ragweed, higher level of air pollution and spread of conditions favorable to pathogens and mosquitos. So, what shall we do now? Now we all need to understand all these problems and stop or check the factors causing these. It’s we human being to choose whether we should go to hell or heaven.


Wednesday, 15 May 2019 17:22

Plastic Pollution & its effect

By: Sanjenbam Jugeshwor Singh
Faculty Mathematics, NIELIT Imphal, Akampat.

Plastic pollution is the accumulation of plastic objects like plastic bottles and much more in the Earth’s Environment that adversely affects wildlife, wildlife habitat and humans. Plastics that acts as a pollutants are categorized into micro, meso or macro debris based on size. Plastics are inexpensive and durable and as a result levels of plastic production by humans are high. However the chemical structure of most plastics renders them resistant to many natural process of degradation and as a result they are slow to degrade. Together these two factors have led to a high prominence of plastic pollution in the Environment. Plastic pollution can affect land, waterways and Ocean. It is estimated that 1.1 to 8.8 million metric tons (MT) of plastic waste enters the Ocean from coastal communities each year. Living organisms, particularly marine animals can be harmed either by mechanical effects, such as entanglement in plastic objects or problems related to ingestion of plastic waste or through exposure to chemicals within plastics that interfere with their physiology. Humane are also affected by plastic pollution such as through disruption of various harmful mechanisms.
As of 2018, about 380 million tons of plastic is produced worldwide each year. From the 1950s up to 2018, an estimated 6.3 billion tons of plastic has been produced worldwide, of which an estimated 9% has been recycled and another 12% has been incinerated. In the UK alone, more than 5 million tons of plastics are consumed each year of which only an estimated one quarter is recycled, with the remainder going to landfills. This large amount of plastic waste inevitably enters the environment with studies suggesting that the bodies of 90% of seabirds contains plastic debris. In some areas there have been significant efforts to reduce the prominence of plastic pollution through reducing plastic consumption and promoting plastic recycling. Some researchers suggest that by 2050 there could be more plastic than fish in the Ocean by weight. Chlorinated plastic can release harmful chemicals into the surrounding soil, which can then seep into groundwater or other surrounding water source and also the ecosystem of the World. This can cause serious harm to species that drink the water. Landfills areas contain many different types of plastics. In these landfills there are many microorganisms which speed up the degradation of plastics. The microorganisms include bacteria such as pseudomonas, nylon eating bacteria and Flavobacteria. These bacteria break down nylon through the activity of the nylonase enzymes. Breakdown of biodegradable plastics release methane, a gas very powerful greenhouse gas that contribute significantly the global warming.
In 2012, it was estimated that, there was approximately 165 million tons of plastics pollution in the world’s Ocean. One type of plastic that is of concern in terms of Ocean plastic pollution is nurdles. Nurdles are manufactured plastic pellets used in the creation of plastic products and are often shipped via cargo ship. Many billions of nurdles are spilled into Ocean each year and it has been estimated that globally around 10% of beach litter consist of nurdles. Plastics in Ocean typically degrade within a year but not entirely. In the process, toxic chemicals such as bisphenol A and polystyrene can leach into waters from plastic pollution in Ocean and combined with plastic bags and food containers make up the majority of Ocean debris. One study estimated that there are more than 5 trillion plastic pieces (defined into the four classes of small micro plastics, large micro plastics, mesoand macro plastics) afloat at sea. The litter that is being delivered into the Oceans is toxic to marine fish and humans. The toxins that are components of plastics include diethylhexyl phthalate, which is a toxic carcinogen as well as lead, cadmium and mercury. Plankton fish and ultimately the human race through the food chain, ingest these highly toxic carcinogens and chemical. Consuming the fish that contain these toxins can cause an increase in cancer, immune disorder and birth defects. This was the first study to focus on global drinking water pollution with plastic and showed that with a contamination rate of 94% tap water in United States was the most polluted followed by Lebanon and India. European countries such as the United Kingdom, Germany and France had the lowest contamination rate though still as high as 72%. This means that people may be ingesting between 3,000 to 4,000micro particles of plastics from tap water per year. This analysis found particles of more than 2.5 micron size, which is 2,500 times bigger than a nanometer. It is currently unclear, if this contamination is affecting human health but if the water is also found to contain nano-particles pollutants, there could be adverse impacts on human well-being, according to Scientist associated with the study.
Due to the use of chemical additives during plastic production, plastics have potentially harmful effects that could prove to be carcinogenic or promote endocrine disruption. Some of the additives are used as phthalate plasticizers and brominated flame retardants. Through biomonitoring, chemicals in plastics such as BPA and phthalates, have been identified in the human population. Humans can be exposed to these chemicals through the nose, mouth or skin. Some of the chemicals used in plastic production can cause dermatitis upon contact with our skin. Plastic pollution has the potential to poison animals which can then adversely affect human food supplies. Some marine species such as sea turtles have been found to contain large proportion of plastics in their stomach. When this occurs, the animals typically starves because the plastic block the animals’ digestive tract. Sometimes marine mammals are entangled in plastic products such as nets which can harm or kill them.
This is the global scenario in a wider spectrum. Coming down to our tiny state Manipur, which was once a green state, will it be exorbitant to say that Manipur is free from this problem? Everybody will say, no. We all have seen plastic bottles, plastic bags or any other form of plastic everywhere in our state. Plastics in the rivers, on the roadsides, at the playground, in the field, in the lakes and so on. Again, it is reported that 5% of the total solid waste generated in Imphal per day is plastic. If it is so the adverse effect of plastic pollution mentioned above will not leave Manipur aside rather we will have more serious effect. In few days back we all have experienced the problems of solid waste, plastic waste in Imphal Municipality area due to the prevention of dumping these waste at LamdengKhunou by the local people. The inconvenience caused by these waste have been experienced by each one of us. This is just the beginning. Then what shall we do now?  It is we, general public to prevent and protect our environment from such serious issue. Simply, waiting action from our leaders who always provide lip service will not solve the problem timely rather we all will go to the hell. So let us reduce the usage of plastic and plastic products for a better and healthy Manipur.
(This writer can be reached to: This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it. Or WhatsApp’s No: 9612891339.

Among  any  other  career  after 10+2,  Medical  career  seems  to  be  at the top  not only in Manipur but  throughout  India.  This  is  because,  Employability  is  the  best  as  compare to  any  other  course especially  in Manipur . Yes, medical profession is highly needed for a healthy public life. To make their children to be a Doctor, parents tried all their wits end. I think, it’s also necessary to identify whether his ward is fit for the medical profession or not .Simply pushing their children in the helm of Medical arena without their own aspiration will rather produce negative impact in the life of  many of our youths. It is not an easy task for a student to qualify in National Eligibility cum Entrance Test (NEET) to undergo Medical profession. Nevertheless we should not give up our effort to qualify in this national level common examination. As we all know majority of our parents put maximum input for their children to be selected in NEET after 10+2.
In  spite  of  having  talents  in  Mathematics  by  our  students,  it  appears  this  talent  has  been nipped in the buds after class X due to viral among our parents for medical career. This is clearly seen from the result of HSLC Examination of BOSEM and HSSLC Examination of COHSEM. Many students scored letter mark in Mathematics in HSLC exam of BOSEM while pass percentage in Mathematics in HSSLC exams of COHSEM is very pathetic. One of main reason of declining in the pass percentage of Mathematics in HSSLC may be due to madness in Medical career, if I am not mistaken. Because of this, many students who are very good in Mathematics up to Class X started neglecting it in Class XI and XII. Now ,we need to rethink ,how many students from Manipur will get  the  opportunity  to  go  for  Medical  line  out  of  thousands  of  students  passed    XII  Sc,  from COHSEM  and  CBSE ? I  think,  at  the  most  300  students  from  Manipur  will  get  this  opportunity through NEET. Of course few rich parents send their children to Private Medical Colleges in India and abroad after spending huge amount.  Any  way  giving  effort  to  be  qualified  in  NEET  is encouraging and is a must to do. But one dark side of this attempt is that, a student who tried
NEET for the first time is generally not selected but continue for second attempt by sending them to premier coaching centers. Yes, it’s good and positive attitude of trying again and again.
However many of the parents simply admitted their wards in BA/ B.Sc in some Colleges (where they can appear examination without attending the class) in conjunction with their coaching class for medical. During the examination in these colleges where they admitted, how and what he/she might  have  written    is  the  scene  that  everybody  know  .Because  of  the  way  they  appear  the examination in these colleges their moral of study for the NEET goes down to hell though they may pass the degree exam with high grade. As a result of this their second attempt in NEET is also not successful, then they tried for third time .By the time he/she completes graduation from these colleges without learning anything. In this way the career of many of our bright student have been spoiled. Because of their poor learning during graduation they find very hard to go for further PG  studies.  Then they become useless for anything in their life.  As a result they get frustrated and mentally depressed, lost self-confidence and become a spoil bread of the family and society. So, if this is the case, what shall we do now? Now ,the time has come to put our head together to correct this menace and identify right person for this profession by the parents so that we can save our bright talented stars   before it’s too  late.  These  are  some  of  the  real phenomena that I came across being in teaching profession.

(The writer is a faculty at NEILIT Imphal Center. He can be contacted at   This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it. or whatapps at 9612891339)

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