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Sanjenbam Jugeshwor Singh

Sanjenbam Jugeshwor Singh

Sanjenbam Jugeshwor Singh is a regular contributor of Imphal Times. Presently, he is teaching Mathematics at NIELIT. Jugeshwor can be reached at: [email protected] Or WhatsApp’s No: 9612891339.

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Plastic Pollution & its effect

By: Sanjenbam Jugeshwor Singh
Faculty Mathematics, NIELIT Imphal, Akampat.

Plastic pollution is the accumulation of plastic objects like plastic bottles and much more in the Earth’s Environment that adversely affects wildlife, wildlife habitat and humans. Plastics that acts as a pollutants are categorized into micro, meso or macro debris based on size. Plastics are inexpensive and durable and as a result levels of plastic production by humans are high. However the chemical structure of most plastics renders them resistant to many natural process of degradation and as a result they are slow to degrade. Together these two factors have led to a high prominence of plastic pollution in the Environment. Plastic pollution can affect land, waterways and Ocean. It is estimated that 1.1 to 8.8 million metric tons (MT) of plastic waste enters the Ocean from coastal communities each year. Living organisms, particularly marine animals can be harmed either by mechanical effects, such as entanglement in plastic objects or problems related to ingestion of plastic waste or through exposure to chemicals within plastics that interfere with their physiology. Humane are also affected by plastic pollution such as through disruption of various harmful mechanisms.
As of 2018, about 380 million tons of plastic is produced worldwide each year. From the 1950s up to 2018, an estimated 6.3 billion tons of plastic has been produced worldwide, of which an estimated 9% has been recycled and another 12% has been incinerated. In the UK alone, more than 5 million tons of plastics are consumed each year of which only an estimated one quarter is recycled, with the remainder going to landfills. This large amount of plastic waste inevitably enters the environment with studies suggesting that the bodies of 90% of seabirds contains plastic debris. In some areas there have been significant efforts to reduce the prominence of plastic pollution through reducing plastic consumption and promoting plastic recycling. Some researchers suggest that by 2050 there could be more plastic than fish in the Ocean by weight. Chlorinated plastic can release harmful chemicals into the surrounding soil, which can then seep into groundwater or other surrounding water source and also the ecosystem of the World. This can cause serious harm to species that drink the water. Landfills areas contain many different types of plastics. In these landfills there are many microorganisms which speed up the degradation of plastics. The microorganisms include bacteria such as pseudomonas, nylon eating bacteria and Flavobacteria. These bacteria break down nylon through the activity of the nylonase enzymes. Breakdown of biodegradable plastics release methane, a gas very powerful greenhouse gas that contribute significantly the global warming.
In 2012, it was estimated that, there was approximately 165 million tons of plastics pollution in the world’s Ocean. One type of plastic that is of concern in terms of Ocean plastic pollution is nurdles. Nurdles are manufactured plastic pellets used in the creation of plastic products and are often shipped via cargo ship. Many billions of nurdles are spilled into Ocean each year and it has been estimated that globally around 10% of beach litter consist of nurdles. Plastics in Ocean typically degrade within a year but not entirely. In the process, toxic chemicals such as bisphenol A and polystyrene can leach into waters from plastic pollution in Ocean and combined with plastic bags and food containers make up the majority of Ocean debris. One study estimated that there are more than 5 trillion plastic pieces (defined into the four classes of small micro plastics, large micro plastics, mesoand macro plastics) afloat at sea. The litter that is being delivered into the Oceans is toxic to marine fish and humans. The toxins that are components of plastics include diethylhexyl phthalate, which is a toxic carcinogen as well as lead, cadmium and mercury. Plankton fish and ultimately the human race through the food chain, ingest these highly toxic carcinogens and chemical. Consuming the fish that contain these toxins can cause an increase in cancer, immune disorder and birth defects. This was the first study to focus on global drinking water pollution with plastic and showed that with a contamination rate of 94% tap water in United States was the most polluted followed by Lebanon and India. European countries such as the United Kingdom, Germany and France had the lowest contamination rate though still as high as 72%. This means that people may be ingesting between 3,000 to 4,000micro particles of plastics from tap water per year. This analysis found particles of more than 2.5 micron size, which is 2,500 times bigger than a nanometer. It is currently unclear, if this contamination is affecting human health but if the water is also found to contain nano-particles pollutants, there could be adverse impacts on human well-being, according to Scientist associated with the study.

Due to the use of chemical additives during plastic production, plastics have potentially harmful effects that could prove to be carcinogenic or promote endocrine disruption. Some of the additives are used as phthalate plasticizers and brominated flame retardants. Through biomonitoring, chemicals in plastics such as BPA and phthalates, have been identified in the human population. Humans can be exposed to these chemicals through the nose, mouth or skin. Some of the chemicals used in plastic production can cause dermatitis upon contact with our skin. Plastic pollution has the potential to poison animals which can then adversely affect human food supplies. Some marine species such as sea turtles have been found to contain large proportion of plastics in their stomach. When this occurs, the animals typically starves because the plastic block the animals’ digestive tract. Sometimes marine mammals are entangled in plastic products such as nets which can harm or kill them.
This is the global scenario in a wider spectrum. Coming down to our tiny state Manipur, which was once a green state, will it be exorbitant to say that Manipur is free from this problem? Everybody will say, no. We all have seen plastic bottles, plastic bags or any other form of plastic everywhere in our state. Plastics in the rivers, on the roadsides, at the playground, in the field, in the lakes and so on. Again, it is reported that 5% of the total solid waste generated in Imphal per day is plastic. If it is so the adverse effect of plastic pollution mentioned above will not leave Manipur aside rather we will have more serious effect. In few days back we all have experienced the problems of solid waste, plastic waste in Imphal Municipality area due to the prevention of dumping these waste at LamdengKhunou by the local people. The inconvenience caused by these waste have been experienced by each one of us. This is just the beginning. Then what shall we do now?  It is we, general public to prevent and protect our environment from such serious issue. Simply, waiting action from our leaders who always provide lip service will not solve the problem timely rather we all will go to the hell. So let us reduce the usage of plastic and plastic products for a better and healthy Manipur.
(This writer can be reached to: This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it. Or WhatsApp’s No: 9612891339.

‘ASPIRATION IN MEDICAL CAREER’ - and its effect among our youths.

Among  any  other  career  after 10+2,  Medical  career  seems  to  be  at the top  not only in Manipur but  throughout  India.  This  is  because,  Employability  is  the  best  as  compare to  any  other  course especially  in Manipur . Yes, medical profession is highly needed for a healthy public life. To make their children to be a Doctor, parents tried all their wits end. I think, it’s also necessary to identify whether his ward is fit for the medical profession or not .Simply pushing their children in the helm of Medical arena without their own aspiration will rather produce negative impact in the life of  many of our youths. It is not an easy task for a student to qualify in National Eligibility cum Entrance Test (NEET) to undergo Medical profession. Nevertheless we should not give up our effort to qualify in this national level common examination. As we all know majority of our parents put maximum input for their children to be selected in NEET after 10+2.
In  spite  of  having  talents  in  Mathematics  by  our  students,  it  appears  this  talent  has  been nipped in the buds after class X due to viral among our parents for medical career. This is clearly seen from the result of HSLC Examination of BOSEM and HSSLC Examination of COHSEM. Many students scored letter mark in Mathematics in HSLC exam of BOSEM while pass percentage in Mathematics in HSSLC exams of COHSEM is very pathetic. One of main reason of declining in the pass percentage of Mathematics in HSSLC may be due to madness in Medical career, if I am not mistaken. Because of this, many students who are very good in Mathematics up to Class X started neglecting it in Class XI and XII. Now ,we need to rethink ,how many students from Manipur will get  the  opportunity  to  go  for  Medical  line  out  of  thousands  of  students  passed    XII  Sc,  from COHSEM  and  CBSE ? I  think,  at  the  most  300  students  from  Manipur  will  get  this  opportunity through NEET. Of course few rich parents send their children to Private Medical Colleges in India and abroad after spending huge amount.  Any  way  giving  effort  to  be  qualified  in  NEET  is encouraging and is a must to do. But one dark side of this attempt is that, a student who tried

NEET for the first time is generally not selected but continue for second attempt by sending them to premier coaching centers. Yes, it’s good and positive attitude of trying again and again.
However many of the parents simply admitted their wards in BA/ B.Sc in some Colleges (where they can appear examination without attending the class) in conjunction with their coaching class for medical. During the examination in these colleges where they admitted, how and what he/she might  have  written    is  the  scene  that  everybody  know  .Because  of  the  way  they  appear  the examination in these colleges their moral of study for the NEET goes down to hell though they may pass the degree exam with high grade. As a result of this their second attempt in NEET is also not successful, then they tried for third time .By the time he/she completes graduation from these colleges without learning anything. In this way the career of many of our bright student have been spoiled. Because of their poor learning during graduation they find very hard to go for further PG  studies.  Then they become useless for anything in their life.  As a result they get frustrated and mentally depressed, lost self-confidence and become a spoil bread of the family and society. So, if this is the case, what shall we do now? Now ,the time has come to put our head together to correct this menace and identify right person for this profession by the parents so that we can save our bright talented stars   before it’s too  late.  These  are  some  of  the  real phenomena that I came across being in teaching profession.

(The writer is a faculty at NEILIT Imphal Center. He can be contacted at   This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it. or whatapps at 9612891339)

“Soft Drinks& Pesticides” (A drink that silently Kills us)

A global change in dietary habits has occurred over the last few decades resulting from the introduction of sweeteners such as fructose and sucrose by the food industries. For example, regular soft Drinks (SD) and fruit drinks, major source of High Fructose Corn Syrup (HFCS) or sugar have increase from 3.9% of the total energy intake in 1977 to 9.2% of the total energy intake in 2001, worldwide soft drinks are the leading cause of added sugar. Recent evidence suggested one association between the intake of sugar sweetened Soft drinks and the risk of obesity and diabetes resulting from large amounts of HFCS used in their manufacture, which raises blood glucose similar to sucrose. In addition, diet Soft Drink contains aspartame sweetener caramel coloring, which are rich in advanced glycation end products for a potentially increase insulin resistance and inflammation.

   Human studies and animal models suggest that dietary factors can affect fatty infiltration and lipid peroxidation in various type of liver disease including Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease (NAFLD). More recently increased ingestion of soft drinks was found to be linked to NAFLD independent of metabolic syndrome, with NAFLD patients consuming 5 times the amount of carbohydrates from soft drinks as compare to healthy persons. It is reported that individual consuming more than one soft drink daily showed a high prevalence of metabolic syndrome than those consuming less than one soft drink per day. This review emphasizes some hard fact about soft drink reviews fructose metabolism and explains how fructose contribute to the development of obesity, diabetes, metabolic syndrome and NAFLD.

       The term soft drink more commonly known as soda, soda pop, pop, coke-Pepsi or tonic refers to a nonalcoholic beverage that is usually carbonated. Two types of soft drinks are used: regular SD which are sweetened with sugar (fructose) and diet SD which are sweetened with non-caloric sweeteners (aspartame). Upto 1980s, SD contained most of their food energy in the form of refine can sugar or corn syrup. Today High- fructose corn syrup (HFCS) s used almost exclusively as a sweetener in the United States and in other countries, because of its lower cost. Added sweetener in regular SD is an important components of our diet, representing 318 Kcal of dietary intake or 16% of all calorie intake. HFCS made by enzymatic isomerization of glucose to fructose was introduced as HFCS-42(42% of fructose) and HFCS-55(55% of fructose) in 1967 and 1977 respectively and opened a new frontier for the sweetener and SD industries. The use of sweetener has increased considerably worldwide and soft drink beverage seem to be a major contributor for obesity, diabetes mellitus, hyper lipidemia, insulin resistance, hypertension metabolic syndrome and cardiovascular disease. In this review, we sought to focus attention on the impact of soft drinks on the accumulation of fat in the liver. This has significant clinical implications as the percentage of NAFLD correlates strongly with diabetes, cardiovascular disease and diffuse atherosclerosis.


The other Face of “May –Day” In Europe & North America

In the late 19th century 1st May was chosen as the date for” International Worker’s Day “by the Socialist and communist to commemorate the Haymarket Affairs in Chicago. International Worker’s day can also be referred as May –Day, but it is different celebration from the traditional May-Day celebrated in almost European countries as well as in U.S and Canada.May Dayis anancient Northern Hemisphere Spring festival and a traditional spring holiday in many cultures usually celebrated on 1st May.Dances,singing and cakes are usually part of the festival. The earliest known May celebrations appeared with the FLORALIA, festival of Flora, the roman Goddess of flowers, held on 27 April during the Roman Republic era and the Maiouma or Maiuma, a festival celebrating Dionysus and Aphrodite on an unknown date in May every three years. The Floralia opened with theatrical performances. In the Floralia,Ovid says that hares and goats were released as part of the festivities. Persiuswrites that crowds were pelted with vetches, beans and lupins. A ritual called the Florifertum was performed either on April 27 or May 3, during which a bundle of wheat ears was carried into a shrine though it is not clear if this devotion was made to Flora or Ceres. Floralia conducted with competitive events and spectacles and a sacrifice to Flora.
      According to the 6th century chronicles of JhonMalalas, the Maiuma was a “nocturnal dramatic festival” held every three years and known as orgies that is, the Mysterious of Dionysus and Aphrodite and it was known as the Maioumas because it is celebrated in the month of May. During this time, enough money was set aside by the celebrated with splendorous banquets and offerings. Its reputation for licentiousness causes it to be suppressed during the reign of Emperor Constaine, though a less debauched version of it was briefly restored during the reign of Arcadius and Honorius, only to be suppressed again during the san period. A later May festival celebrated in Germanic countries, Walpurgis Night, commemorates the official canonization of Saint Walpurga on May 1st, 870. In Gaelic culture, the evening of April 30th was the celebration of Beltane (Whichtransact to- Lucky fire), the start of summer season. First attested in 900 AD, the celebration mainly focused on the symbolic use of fire to bless cattle and other livestock’s as they were moved to summer pastures.
   On May Day, Bulgarians celebrates Irminden. The holiday is associated with snakes and lizards and rituals are made in order to protect people from them. In Czech Republic, May Day istraditionallyconsidered as a holiday of love and May as a month of love. The celebration of spring are held on 30thApril, when a Maypole is erected-a tradition possibly connected to Beltane, since bonfires are also lit on that day. It is a public holiday on 30 April. On May 31st the Maypole is taken down in an event called Maypole felling. On 1st May couples in love are kissing under a blooming tree. May Day or Spring Day is a national holiday in Estonia, celebrating the arrival of spring. More traditional festivities takes place throughout the night before and into the early hours of 1 May. In Finland: Walpurgis Night is one of the four biggest holidays along with Christmas Eve; NewYear eve and Midsummer. Walpurgis witness the biggest carnival style festival held in Finland’s cities and towns. The celebration which begin on the evening of 30th April and continue up to 1st May. Typically center on the consumption of Sima,sparkling wine and other alcoholic beverages. Student’s traditions, particularly those of engineering students are one of the main characteristic of Vappu.On May 1561, King Charles IX of France received a lily of the valley as a lucky charm. He decided to offer a lily of the valley each year to the ladies of the court. At the beginning of the 20th century, it became custom to give a sprig of lily of the valley, a symbol of springtime on 1 May. The government permits individuals and workers organization to sell them tax free on that day. Nowadays, people may present loved ones either with bunches of lily of the valley or dog rose flowers. In rural regions of Germany, especially the Harz Mountains, Walpurgisnacht celebrations of Pagan origin are traditionally held on the night before May Day including bonfires and wrapping of a Maibaum (Maypole). Young people use this opportunity to party, while the day itself is used by many families to get some fresh air, Motto:Tanz in den mai( dancing into May).In Greece,1 May is a day that celebrates spring. The most common aspect of modern May Day celebrations in Greece is the preparation of a flower wreath from wild flowers. The flowers are placed on the wreath against a background of green leaves and the wreath is hung either on the entrance to the family house/apartment or on a balcony. It remains there until midsummer night. On that night, the flower wreaths are set alight in bonfires, known as St John’s fire. May Day has been celebrating in Ireland since pagan times as the feast of Baltane and latter time as Mary’s day. Traditionally, bonfires were lit to mark the coming of summer and to grant luck to people and livestock. Old traditions such as bonfire are no longer widely observed though the practice still persist in some places across the country.       In Italy, it is called Calendimaggio or Cantar Maggio, a seasonal feast held to celebrate the arrival of spring. “Maias”is a superstition throughout Portugal,with special focus on the northern territories and rarely elsewhere. Maias is the dominant naming in northern Portugal, but it may be referred to by other names including DiadasBruxas( Witches day), O Burro( the Donkey, referring to an evil spirit) or the last of April as the local traditions preserved to this day occur on that evening only. People put yellow flowers of Portuguese brooms, the bushes are known as giestar. The flowers of the bush are known as Maias,which are placed on doors or gates and every doorways of houses,windows, granaries, currently also cars, which the populace collect on the evening of the 30th April when the Portuguese brooms are blooming, to defend those places from bad spirit, witches and evil eyes. The placement of the May flower or bush in the doorways must be done before midnight. On May Day, the Romanians celebrate the arminden(orArmindeni), thebeginning of summer, symbolically tied with the protection of crops and farm animals. The day is celebrated to ensure good wine in autumn and for people and farm animals’ alike, good health and protection from the elements of nature (Storms, hailillness pests). People will have parties in natural surroundings with fiddlers for those who could afford it. Then it is customary to roast and eat lamb along with new mutton cheese and to drink mug wort- flavored wine or just red wine to refresh the blood and get protection from diseases. On the way back, the men wear lilac or mug wort flowers on their hats. In Serbia, ProvomajskiUranak(Reveille on May 1st) is a folk tradition and feast that consist of the fact that on May 1, people go in the nature or even leave the day before and spend the night with a camp fire. Most of the time, a dish is cooked in a kettle or in a barbecue. Among Serbs this holiday is widespread.  Almost every town in Serbia, has its own traditional first-of- May excursion sites and most often these are green areas outside the city.
           In Spain, May day is celebrated throughout the country as Los Mayos(Lit; the May’s) often in a similar way to Fista de las Crees in many parts of the Hispanic America. People sing popular songs (also called Maios) making mentions to social and political events(around a decorate tree or sculpture) during the past year, sometimes under the form of converse, while they walk around with the percussion of two sticks. Today the tradition became a competition where the best sculpture and songs received prize. In Sweden, the more traditional festivities have moved to the day before Walpurgis Night, known in some locals as simply last of April and often celebrated with bonfire and a good bit of drinking. However 1st May is celebrated as International Worker’s Day. Traditional English May Day rites and celebrations include crowning a May Queen and celebrations involving a Maypole, around which dancers often circle with ribbons. Historically. Morris dancing has been linked to May Day celebrations. May Day has been celebrated in Scotland for centuries. It was previously closely associated with Beltane festival. InWales, the first day of May is known as Calan Mai or CalanHaf, and parallels the festival of Beltane and other May Day tradition in Europe. Traditions would start the night before with bonfires and is considered a spring night when people would gather hawthorn and flowers to decorate their houses, celebrating new growth and fertility. While on May Day celebrations would include summer dancing and May carols other times referred to as singing under the wall, May Day wasalso a time for officially opening a village green. In Canada,May Day is celebrated in some parts of the provinces of British Columbia,Quebec,New Brunswick and Ontario. In Toronto, on the morning of 1stMay, various Morrisdancing troops from Toronto and Hamilton gather on the road by grenadier, café, inHigh Park to dance in the May. MayDay was also celebrated by some early European settlers of the American continent. In some parts of the United States, May basket are made. These are small baskets usually filled with flowers or treats and left at someone’s doorstep. The giver rings the bell and runs away. This ishow, May Day is celebrated in various parts of European & North Americans countries.

Writer can be reached at:This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it. Or WhatsApp’s No: 9612891339