Sanjenbam Jugeshwor Singh

Sanjenbam Jugeshwor Singh

Sanjenbam Jugeshwor Singh is a regular contributor of Imphal Times. Presently, he is teaching Mathematics at JCRE Global College. Jugeshwor can be reached at: [email protected] Or WhatsApp’s No: 9612891339.

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Wednesday, 20 January 2021 18:13

Mathematics in our lives

Historically, Mathematics has been a subject that many students struggle with. How often have you heard a young learner utter the words” Im never going to use this stuff” as they are struggling to solve some algebra or calculus problems? Unfortunately, math has a reputation for being hard to understand. For many students, math is boring, abstract, lacking in creativity, complex and very difficult to understand hence typical expression “Im of letters” or “Numbers are not mine”. For some, it can even be a source of dread and panic, causing math anxiety among students. For many parents and teachers the utterances of these phrases are too often a common occurrence in the classrooms. Most people will respond to the students by saying that they may need it or a future job or that it improves the critical thinking ability of brain. While these responses are good and well-intended, they don’t serve the practical and immediate need of the child. So perhaps next time that you hear a student struggling with math, you can gently remind them of these practical applications of math in our everyday life. Furthermore it is interesting to note that if you lack knowledge of mathematics, then you won’t know how it can be used in your life. In other words, learning mathematics will help your mind come up with useful ways that math can be used. People often don’t know what they don’t know and until you fully grasp a new concept you won’t realize what power it has. Even those suffering from math- related anxieties or phobias cannot escape its everyday presence in their lives. From home to school, to work and places in between, math is everywhere whether using measurements, in a recipe or deciding if half a tank of gas will make the distinction, we all use math. It is a good idea, therefore for teachers and parents of reluctant math learners to use real-world examples to ignite a spark of practical interest.
Mathematics is a powerful tool for global understanding and communication that organize our lives and prevents chaos. Mathematics helps us understand the world and provides an effective way of building mental discipline. Math, encourage logical reasoning, critical thinking, creative thinking, abstract or spatial thinking, problem-solving ability and even effective communication skills. In fact mathematics is a study of measurements, numbers and space which is one of the first sciences that human work to develop because of its great importance and benefits. The origin of the word “MATHEMATICS”in Greek, which means tendencies to learn and there are many branches of mathematics in science that are related to the number including the geometric forms, algebra and others. Mathematics plays a vital role in all aspect of life, whether in everyday matters such as time tracking, driving, cooking or jobs such as accounting, finance, banking, engineering and software. These functions require a strong mathematical background and scientific experiments by scientists’ needs mathematical technique. They are a language to describe scientists: work and achievements. As for mathematical inventions they are numerous, throughout the ages. Some of them were tangible, such as counting and measuring devices. Some of them are not tangible as method of thinking and solving. The symbol that express numbers are also one of the most important mathematical inventions. Mathematics helps in analytical thinking. While solving math problems, data are collected, disassembled and then interconnected to solve them. Mathematics helps: to develop the ability to think; explain how things work; to develop wisdom; increase the speed of intuitive; make the child smarter; provides the child with an opportunity to get to the world. It is important in a constantly evolving world and money can be collected in mathematics when used as a profession. Mathematics is the pillar of organize life for the present day. Without number and mathematical evidence we can’t resolve many issues in our daily lives. There are times, measurements, rates, wages, lenders, discounts, claims, supplies, taxes, money exchange, consumption etc. and in the absence of these sports data, we have to face confusion and chaos. Thus mathematics has become the companion of man and his helper, since the beginning of human existence on the Earth. When man wanted to answer questions such as “How many”, he invented math. Then algebra was invented to facilitate calculations, measurements, analysis and Engineering. The science of trigonometry emerged when humans wanted to locate high mountains and stars. Therefore, the knowledge of mathematics arose and developed when human felt the need and mathematics are necessary for the long planning of life and also the daily planning of any individual.
Mathematical rapprochement is necessary for any process, so, if anyone want to reach the height of his life he should not fail to believe in the role of mathematics in his life, starting with the ordinary citizens. Everyday has a daily interest in mathematics. Mathematics deeply related to the natural phenomena, the way to solve many secrets of nature. Mathematics is necessary to understand the other branches of knowledge. All depends on mathematics in one way or others. There is no science, art or specialty except mathematics was the key to it. This discipline and mastery of any other science or art are very much related to the size of mathematics. In fact mathematics is at the center of our culture and its history is often confused with that of philosophy. Just as the cosmological and evolution theories have exerted considerable influence on the conception that humans have of us, the non-Euclidean geometries have allowed new ideas about the Universe and theorems of mathematical logic have revealed the limitations of deductive method. There is also mathematics in art. Since Pythagoras, the most famous mathematician, discovered numerical reasons in musical harmony, the relationship between mathematics and art has been permanent. These aspects of mathematics make them a bridge between the humanities and natural sciences, between the two cultures. Mathematics has a number of useful benefits to our mind, if we go into its study. In spite of huge benefits provided by mathematics, it seems natural that the majority of the populations knows almost nothing about mathematics and that their relation to math is limited to the four rules. This distance contracts with the importance of mathematics today in society. However, it is a subject that is part of the study of our children and as such should be an effort for compression, which usually involves constant practice. As boring as math may seem, its study translates into benefits for education and for our life in general.
Writer is Sr. Faculty JCRE, Global College, Babupara

Wednesday, 13 January 2021 17:13

Archaic of War on Nature

COVID-19 has had devastating consequences for the entire World at large. Spreading around the World at the speed of light, by 10th December 2020, COVID-19 hasinfected 69,465,210 people and killed almost 1,579,806. Although the virus’s origins are still murky, it’s highly likely that it jumped from species to species, until it hit ours. However, it is only the latest in a long line of human diseases that have originated in animals. Other such devastating diseases- SARS, HIV, Ebola and Avian flu to name but a few- have caused much harm to human civilization throughout history. Trading diseases with wildlife isn’t new. In the middle Ages, the bubonic Plague-caused by bacterium –originated in city rats and was typically transferred to humans via a bite by an infected flea. The 1918 influenza pandemic (Spanish Flu) has been traced back to birds and killed an estimated 50 million people about one-third of the Planet’s population. In 2009, the less fatal Swine flu was sourced to pigs raised for food in North America and HIV/AIDS started as a virus in Old World monkey in Africa. Recently, the frequency of disease outbreaks has been increasing steadily. Between 1980 and 2013, there were 12012 recorded outbreaks, comprising 44 million individual cases and affecting every country in the world. While many bacterial fungal and parasitic diseases that humans get from animals are hard to transmit between people viruses mutate far faster and are more easily passed on to others. In the fall of 2014, the deadly Ebola virus jumped from an unknown animal to a two year old boy in Guinea. It quickly spread to those around him and began terrorizing West African nations; by 2016 more than 11,000 people had died. Researchers now believe that fruit bats were the origin of this zoonotic disease- which refers to any disease that makes the jump from animal to humans or vice-versa. Today 75% of all new or emerging infectious diseases are zoonotic.
So, how do we prevent future viruses’ outbreaks? It’s clear, “PROTECT NATURE”: its wildlife and natural habitats. Sadly, biodiversity (from Ecosystem to genes to species) is declining faster than at any other time in human history. Natural Ecosystem functions similarly to the human body; when they are robust with diverse species and healthy with space for animal populations, they are more resistant to diseases. Thriving ecosystems also provide a variety of benefits to surrounding human communities, from fertile soil to food to fresh water. However when human activities, such as logging and mining, disrupt and degrade these ecosystems, animals are forced closer together. They are then more likely to become stressed or sick and be in closer proximity to human settlement. In diverse ecosystem well separated from human habitations, viruses ebb and flow without ever having a chance to make leaps between species. But as deforestation drives wild animals out of their natural habitats and closer to human populations, that protection begins to break down. In these conditions, diseases bounce back and forth between wildlife populations and us. Disrupted ecosystem tends to lose their biggest predators first: and what they leave behind are smaller animals that live fast reproduce in large numbers and have immune systems more capable of carrying diseases without succumbing to it when they are only a few species left, they get really good at carrying diseases . And when these populations prosper near people, there may be nothing between a deadly pathogen and all of humanity.
Researchers have been warning for decades that animals-borne illnesses are going to become morefrequent due to the rapid destruction of nature. In fact almost half of the new diseases that jumped from animals to human after 1940 can be traced to agriculture, changes in land use or wildlife hunting. Ebola, Lyme, MERS, SARS, West Nile and others are all fix the profile. There may be 10,000 mammalian viruses potentially dangerous to people. Not only is animal biodiversity desirable but plants diversity as well. For instance, the rare Madagascar rose Periwinkle, Catharanthusroseus, contains compounds useful as medicine for childhood leukemia. An estimated 50,000 to 70,000 plants species are harvested for traditional or modern medicine while around 50% of modern drugs have been developed from natural products that are threatened by biodiversity loss, wildlife too; need to be protected if we want to safeguard ourselves. Removing a species through culling can also have health consequences for us. When you eliminate some but not all of the animals, you increase the level of a virus within a population because those individual are still circulating it. This is known as dilution effect, which hypothesize that a higher rate of species richness created a buffer against zoonotic pathogens. Culling isn’t the only dangerous practice we humans have perpetrated on wildlife. Wild market and the illegal wildlife trade pose some of the clearest threat to animals and human health. Taking disparate animals out of their various native environments and penning them together puts them in contact with other species-and other diseases- that they likely would have never encountered naturally in the wild. Wild animals markets that sell a variety of exotic species in one place are the perfect breeding ground for rare zoonotic diseases. This exchange of wildlife and wildlife parts is also devastating to nature because it decimates species populations such as elephants and rhinos, which are critical to the health of their respective ecosystem. Wildlife biodiversity can restrain pathogens before they ever leave the wild. But under current conditions more than one million species are at risk of extinction due to human activities.
What’s more, human- caused climate change plays a part in exacerbating pandemics. Along with natural habitat and wildlife loss, shifting climate zones increases our vulnerability to a range of health threats. As the world warms, wild life is forced to migrate to new places, where they interact with other species they haven’t previously encountered, increase the risk of new diseases emerging. We know that in the late 1990s, in Malaysia, the outbreak of Nipah Virus was a result of forest fires and draught which had caused fruit bats, the natural carriers of the virus, to move from forest to pig farms. Infected pigs then infected farmers, who infected others, spreading the diseases. Climate change has caused humans displacement which alters and accelerates the transmission patterns of infectious diseases such as dengue fever, malaria and Zica virus. Movement of large groups of people to new locations, often under poor conditions, increases their vulnerability to such biological threats. Climate change is also responsible for massive fires across the planet. Earlier this year, more than half of the Australian population was exposed to health harm for weeks when life threatening bush –fires created a blanket of smoke pollution. More than 400 people died as a result. Air pollution particles act as transport for pathogens, contributing to the spread of infectious diseases and viruses across large distances. It’s not like we didn’t know that a diseases like COVID-19 was coming. In 2018 disease ecologist Dr. Peter Daszak, a contributor to the World Health Organization Register of Priority Diseases coined the term Disease X. This described a then –unknown pathogens predicted to originate in animals and cause a serious international epidemic. COVID-19 is that DiseaseX.we have been lucky. The past 20 years of disease outbreak could be viewed as a series of near-miss catastrophes. But we’ve also been unfortunate because that may have led to complacency rather than the increased vigilance that’s necessary to control outbreaks perhaps the seriousness of our current situation will make us finally understand that the biodiversity crisis ,the climate change crisis and the COVID-19 crisis are deeply connected. The state of environment affects the transmission of infectious diseases and that means we must adopt a holistic view of public health that includes the health of the natural environment. We need to re-imagine our relationship with nature. For a long time nature was resilient and robust, so we assumed we could do anything we wanted to it and it would bounce back. Due to population growth and overexploitation, however, we’ve reached a point where what we do to nature now permanently impact it. There is a consistent pattern; when biodiversity decreases and wild spaces vanish, pathogens rage putting humans, other animals –both wild and domestic- and plants. The collision course with nature that we’re on has to stop for as pioneering 20th century conservationist RACHEL CARSON argued, a war against nature is inevitably a war on ourselves.

Friday, 08 January 2021 18:17

Wonders of Nanotechnology

The word Nano Science refers to the study, manipulation and engineering of matters, particles and structures on the nanometer scale (10 -9 m). Important properties of material such as the electrical, optical, thermal and mechanical properties are determined by the way molecules and atoms assemble on the Nano scale into larger structures. Moreover in nanometer size structures these properties often different then on macro scale because quantum mechanical effect becomes important. Nanotechnology on the other hand is the application of Nano science leading to the use of new nanomaterial’s and Nano size components in useful products. Nanotechnology will eventually provide us with ability to design custom-made materials and products with new enhanced properties , new Nano electronic components, new types of smart medical sensors and even interface between electronic and biological systems. These new born scientific disciplines are situated at the interface between physics, chemistry, material science, biochemistry and biotechnology. Control of these disciplines therefore requires an academic and multidisciplinary scientific education. The concept that seeded nanotechnology was first discussed in 1959 by renowned physicist RICHARD FEYNMAN in his talk “There is plenty of Room at the Bottom” in which he described the possibility of synthesis via direct manipulation of atoms. In 1960, Egyptian engineer Mohammad Atalla and Korean engineer Dawon kahng at Bell Labs fabricated the first MOSFET (metal-oxide- semiconductor field effect transistor) with a gate oxide thickness of 100nm along a gate length of 20. In 1962, Atalla and Kahng fabricated a Nano layer-base-metal semiconductor junction (M-S junction) transistor that used gold (Au) thin films with a thickness of 10nm. The term “Nanotechnology “was first used by “Norio Taniguchi” in 1974, though it was not widely known. Inspired by Feynman’s concepts, K. Eric Drexter used the term “Nanotechnology” in his 1986 book “Engines of Creation”. The coming Era of Nanotechnology, which proposed the idea of a Nano scale ‘assembler” which would be able to build a copy of itself and of other items of arbitrary complexity with atomic control. Also in 1986, Drexter co-founded “The Foresight Institute” to help increase public awareness and understanding of nanotechnology concept and implications. The emergence of Nanotechnology as a field in the 1980s occurred through convergence of Dexter’s theoretical and public work, which developed and popularized a conceptual framework for nanotechnology and high-visibility experimental advances that drew additional wide-scale attention to the prospects of atomic control matter. Since the popularity spike in the 1980s, most of the nanotechnology has involved investigation of several approaches to making mechanical devices out of small number of atoms. Nanotechnology is the engineering of functional systems at the molecular scale. This covers both current work and concepts that are more advanced. In its original sense, nanotechnology refers to the projects ability to construct items from the bottom up, using techniques and tools being developed today to make complete high performance products. One nanometre (nm) is one billionth or 10 -9 of a meter. By comparison, typical Carbon-Carbon bond lengths or the spacing between these atoms in a molecule are in the range of 0. 12- 0.15 nm and a DNA double helix has a diameter around 2nm. On the other hand, the smallest cellular life-forms, the bacteria of genus Mycoplasma are around 200nm in length. By convention, nanotechnology is taken as the scale of 1 to 100nm following the definition used by National Nanotechnology Initiative in U.S. The lower limit is set by the size of atoms (hydrogen has the smallest atoms, which are approximately a quarter of an nm kinetic diameter), since nanotechnology must build its devices from atoms and molecules. The upper limit is more or less arbitrary but is around the size below which phenomena not observed in larger structures start to become apparent and can be made use of in the Nano device. These new phenomena make nanotechnology distinct from devices which are merely miniaturized versions of an equivalent macroscopic device; such devices are on a larger scale and come under the dissipation micro technology. Two main approaches are used in nanotechnology. In the “bottom up” approach materials and devices are built from molecular components which assemble themselves chemically by principle of molecular recognition. In the “top down” approach, Nano objects are constructed from larger entities without atomic level control. Areas of physics, such as Nano electronics, Nano mechanics, Nano photonic and nanoionics have evolved during the last few decades to provide basic scientific foundation of Nanotechnology. Most applications of nanotechnology are limited to the use of first generation passive nanomaterial’s which include titanium dioxide in sunscreen, cosmetics, surface coating and some food products. Carbon allotropes used to produce gecko tape; silver in food packaging, clothing, disinfectants and household appliances; zinc oxide in sunscreen and cosmetics; paints and outdoor furniture’s varnishes and Cerium oxides as a fuel catalyst. Further application allows tennis balls to last longer; golf balls to fly straighter and even bowling balls to become more durable and have a harder surface. Trousers and socks havebeen infused with nanomaterial so that they will last longer and keep people cool in the summer. Bandages are being infused with silver nanoparticles to heal cuts faster. Video game consoles and personal computers may become cheaper, faster and contain more memory, thanks to nanotechnology. Also to build structures for on chip computing with light, for example on chip optical quantum information processing and picosecond transmission of information. Nanotechnology may have the ability to make existing medical applications cheaper and easier to use in places like the general practitioners official and at home. Cars are being manufactured with nanomaterial so they may need fewer metals and less fuel to operate in the future. Scientists are now turning to nanotechnology in an attempt to develop diesel engines with cleaner exhaust fumes. Nanotechnology also has a prominent role in the fast developing field of Tissue engineering. Researchers have successfully used DNA origami- based nanobots capable of carrying out logic functions to achieve targeted drug delivery in cockroaches.
It is said that the computational power of these nanobots can be scaled up to that of a commodore 64. Although limitless wonders of Nanotechnology have been seen, it has also negative impact on health & environment too. Inhaling airborne nanoparticles and nanofibres may lead to a number of pulmonary diseases e.g. fibrosis. Researchers have found that rats breathed in nano particles, particles settled in the brain and lungs which led to significant increase in biomarkers for inflammation and stress response and those nano particles induce skin ageing through oxidative stress in hairless mice. It is also reported that lab mice consuming nano-titanium dioxides showed DNA and chromosome damage to a degree linked to all big killers of man namely cancer, heart disease, neurological diseases and aging. So, safe use of Nano materials through nanotechnology is a must.

Wednesday, 30 December 2020 17:46

NEP-2020 :A new Landscape in Education

Education is fundamental for achieving full human potential, developing an equitable and just society and promoting national development. Providing universal access to quality education is the key to India’s continued ascent and leadership on the global stage in terms of economic growth, social justice and equality, scientific advancement, national integration and cultural preservation. Universal high-quality education is the best way forward for developing and maximizing our rich talents and resources for the good of the individual, in society, the country and the World. The world is undergoing rapid changes in the knowledge landscape with various dramatic scientific and technological advances such as the rise of big data, machine learning and artificial intelligence, many unskilled jobs worldwide may be taken over by machine, while the need for a skilled workforce, particularly involving mathematics, computer science and data science in conjunction with multidisciplinary abilities across the sciences, social sciences and humanities will be increasingly in great demand. With climate change, increasing pollution and depleting natural resources, there will be a sizeable shift in how we meet the world’s energy, water, food and sanitation needs, again resulting in the need for new skilled labor particularly in biology, chemistry, physics, agriculture, climate science and social science. The growing emergence of epidemics and pandemics will also call for collaborative research in infectious disease management and the development of vaccine and resultant social issues heighten the need for multidisciplinary learning.
The New Education Policy 2020 is the first education policy of the 21st century and aims to address the many growing developmental imperatives of our country. The policy proposes the revision and revamping of all aspects of the education structure including its regulation and governance to create a new system that is aligned with aspirational goals of 21st-century education, including SDG4(Sustainable Development Goal-4),while building upon India’s traditional value system. The National Education Policy lays particular emphasis on the development of the creative potential of each individual. It is based on the principle that education must develop not only cognitive capacity-both the fundamental capacities of literacy and numeracy and higher-order cognitive capacities such as critical thinking and problem solving-but also social- ethical and emotional capacities and disposition. In today’s age of the knowledge-led economy, developing human capital to drive India’s next wave of socio-economic growth is critical. For the first time, there is an unequivocal admission by the policymakers that the existing system is obsolete. Key objectives of the NEP-2020 around reforms curriculum, universalization of early childhood education, national mission for fundamental literacy, accreditation to shift focus from inputs to outcomes and change in governance structure to ensure that the operator, the regulator and adjudicator are not the same are all laudable and potentially disruptive.
How can this new policy be implemented successfully? Yes, here are few tips for this.  EXAMINATION: Examinations in our country seem to be the be-all and end-all of the education process. Until institutions of higher education migrate to more holistic criteria for admission, we won’t see a significant shift in the obsession with examinations. It’s time we dropped the percentage system and arrived at results that provide just the grade or broad range of performance, so someone who scores 95% is not seen as lesser than someone who scores 98%. We need to adept a system of admission where kindness is valued as much as achievement. TEACHER: NEP-2020 acknowledges that no reform will work unless the teachers are brought center stage. So the teachers must be at the center of the fundamental reforms in the education system. The new education policy must help re-establish teachers, at all levels, as the most respected and essential members of society, because they truly shape our next generation of citizens. We need to rightfully glorify and make teaching, one of the noblest and aspired profession for the best and the brightest. Building on the medical residency model, we must attach all teachers’ education colleges to the top schools in the country. Theory and practice must go hand in hand using every good classroom and every good teacher to make more teachers.INVESTMENT: We’ll have to put our money where our mouth is. As per UNDP estimates, the total financial requirement for India to reach SDG4 by 2030 averages to $173 billion per year, far exceeding the current government budget of $76.4 billion a year for education. Government schools spend about Rs.24, 000- Rs..30, 000 per child per annum, while in private schools, 91% of students pay lower than Rs24, 000 per annum. However public expenditure on education in India has not come close to the recommended level of 6% of GDP as envisaged by the 1969 policy reiterated in the policy of 1986. The current public expenditure on education in India has been around 4.43% of GDP. OPENING THE SECTOR: It’s obvious that the government won’t be able to shore up investment to the required levels and would need significant private participation with the current regulatory structure and obsession with keeping it ostensibly clean through not for profit mechanism. We’re ensuring our students are deprived of quality education. If we need investment, we need to incentivize investors. Numerous politicians and bureaucrats have expressed that the whole not for profit agenda is a charade. “How can we expect institutions to invest Rs.100 crore in skilling up schools and not expect a return on their capital? Not liberalizing means keeping the sector unorganized, where all kinds of businessmen with no background interest or skills in education get into the field and run sub-standard institutions. If the sector opens up, we will see big chains coming in from within India and across the globe that might have business interests but will ensure that there is a certain level of professionalism, efficient use of technology, and scale to invest in research and development to deliver more for lesser costs. A good educational institution is one in which every student feels welcomed and cared for , where a safe and stimulating learning environment exists, where a wide range of learning experiences are offered, and where good physical infrastructure and appropriate resources conducive to learning are available to all students..NEP A MISSION: The purpose of the education system is to develop good human beings capable of rational thought and action, possessing compassion and empathy, courage and resilience, scientific temper and creative imagination with sound ethical moorings and values. It aims at producing engaged, productive and contributing citizens for building an equitable, inclusive and plural society as envisaged by our Constitution. Millions of parents and educators around the country have deep-rooted and extremely outdated mental models of what education should be. Assumptions like –rote learning works, examinations and competition are a must even at a young age, we should follow one book, examination results equal intellects, we all did fine with this kind of education- are all barriers to change. So, NEP-2020 is a Mission with a vision to eradicate age-old obsolete system of education in India.
 This national Education Policy envisions an education system rooted to Indian ethos that contributes directly to transforming India, sustainably into an equitable and vibrant knowledge society by providing high-quality education to all and thereby making India a global knowledge superpower. The government needs to run strong campaigns to emphasize the need for change and to invest in curriculum, structures and practices that re-humanize and re-build our ailing education system.

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