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Sanjenbam Jugeshwor Singh

Sanjenbam Jugeshwor Singh

Sanjenbam Jugeshwor Singh is a regular contributor of Imphal Times. Presently, he is teaching Mathematics at NIELIT. Jugeshwor can be reached at: [email protected] Or WhatsApp’s No: 9612891339.

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Roots of Criminal Behavior

Criminal behavior refers to conduct of an offender that leads to and including the commission of an unlawful act and can be explained on sociological or anthropological terms or as responding to biological determinants. Criminal behaviors with a psychopathological sub strum require a biological layer of explanation through biological mechanism that involve personality aspect, genetic and hereditary factors, physiologicalalterations, cerebral damage caused by perinatal insults or head trauma or acute intoxication. In fact, genetic, physiological and biochemical factors are casual agents in the same sense as family, social class or neighborhood factors. Some physiological correlates of personality are also related to criminality, especially by individuals with antisocial and psychopathic personalities. Higher threshold for excitability and higher impulsivity accompanied by lower levels of skin conductance, pulse and electroencephalographic makes for excitability than found among normal individuals are found among psychopathic which could explain their thrill-seeking behaviors. Similarly low pulse has been found to be related to regulatory patterns of inhibitory conduct among adolescents, juvenile delinquents and those diagnosed with conduct disorder, according to experts.
Neuropsychological tests could demonstrate cerebral damage, but this is best done with imaging, MRI, PET scans and SPECT examinations have demonstrated frontal lobe damage among extremely violent individuals, serial murderers and non-psychotic personality disorders persons. Cerebral pathology is related to intermittent explosive disorders and frontal lobe insults have been associated with levels of impulsivity which in turn have been related to levels of serotonin. A familiar components has been described relating antisocial behavior, criminality and violence which in turn are related to parental violence, poverty, single parent families and rough neighborhoods. These interfamily variation factors as known in genetic epidemiology, change from family to family but remains constant as a load in a single family. It is not possible, yet to differentiate within members of a family the quantities that could be attributed to the genetic load (genotype) from that attributed to the environment and that result on a particular form of behavior (phenotype).Link and association studies demonstrate that some genetic disorders such as alcoholism, Gilles dela Tourette syndrome and fragile X-syndrome could be related to antisocial behavior and violence. Furthermore, adoption studies of twins indicate that there exists a genetic relation between antisocial personality and alcoholism. Well, the truth is that both genetic and environmental factors do play an important role in a person’s criminal or anti-social behaviors. Twin studies shown that criminal behavior is influenced by both genetic and shared environmentalfactors. Toxic substances are common correlates of criminal behavior either ingested voluntarily or through exposure in the environment. The impact of alcohol on infants in utero resulting in fetal alcohol syndrome or intellectual damage suffered by normally born babies exposed to high levels of lead in the environment are well documented. Developmental delays and injuries to the developing brain are risk factors for criminality.  Alcohol has a well –known impact on the frontal lobes which are in charge of inhibitory functions and on the limbic structures in charge of vegetative and instinctive functions. The effect of alcohol and drugs are well known in forensic psychiatry because of violent crimes including sexual attacks committed while intoxicated and the emergence of dissociative and automatic states of mind. It is reported that 42% of arrested individuals are inebriated and 29% are under the effects of drugs at the time of arrest. Furthermore, 57% had used drugs within one month prior to their arrest and 83% of inmates in state prisons and 73% of those in federal prisons had utilized drugs at some time in their lifetime. Some experts have expressed a concern that biological explanations could lead to the complexities of crime. They point out that such way of thinking could distort the truth because of the weight paid to biological facts, could false hopes for easy solutions and apprehensions in the population worse than the actual dangers represented by crime. Myths surrounding biological investigations of crime have retarded the development of this profitable area of research.
Crimes occurs most frequently during the second and third decade of life. Males commit more crimes overall and more violent crime than females. Males appear to be more likely to reoffend. Measures related to arousal such as heart rate and skin conductance are low among criminals. Monomorphic or muscular body type is positively correlated with sexual crimes. Testosterone levels positively correlates to criminal behavior. When controlling for age and sex, strong genetic correlates with criminality. Low monoamine Oxidase activity and low 5-HIAA levels tends to be found among criminals. Monoamine OxidaseA (dubbed the ‘warrior gene ‘in popular press) is strongly tied to an increased tendency towards violent crimes. In addition CDH13, a gene previously tied to increased risk of substance abuse has been tied to violent crime. Ferguson stated “a large percentage of our behavior in terms of violence or aggression is influenced by our biology-our gene-and our brain anatomy. In some countries ethnically/ racially diverse geographical areas have higher crime rates compared to homogeneous area. Some studies on immigrants found higher rates of crime among these populations. Associated factors of criminal behavior also include maternal smoking during pregnancy,low birth weight, child maltreatment, low parent-child attachment, marital discord/family discord, alcoholism and drug use in the family, low parental monitoring/supervision etc. From the above facts of developing criminal behavior among human being, thesolutions of reducing criminal behavior can be taken up promptly by using the reverse actions against the way how criminal behavior originated.

Food Wastage & its Impacts

Food waste or food loss is food that is discarded or lost uneaten. The cause of food waste or loss is numerous and occurs at the stages of producing, processing, retelling and consuming. Global food loss and waste amount to between one third and half of all food produced. Loss and wastage occurs at all stages of the food supply chain or value chain. In low –income countries, most loss occur during production, while in developed countries much food – about 100kg per persons per year is wasted at the consumption stage. Causes of food waste may be due to poor farmers harvest crops too early in response to a lack of food and money, minimal farming technology such as plows, tractors and pesticides, inadequate market system, markets are often small, overcrowded, unsanitary and lack of proper cooling equipment for fresh produce, meat and fish spoil in hot climates due to lack of proper transportation. On the other hand in the developed countries the causes of food loss are due to  farmers produce excess food out of anticipation of poor weather or pest attacks, supermarkets have appearance quality standards as edible foods may be rejected by supermarkets due to crops not being favorable in terms of weight, size or supermarkets display large quantities of products that reach their sell before being sold, bulk sized packaging ,large portion meals in restaurants, the attitude that disposing is cheaper than using or re-using, households buy more food than needed.

When food is disposed in a landfill, it rots and becomes a significant source of Methane- a potent greenhouse gas with 21 times the global warming potential of carbon dioxide. Growing and transporting the food that goes to waste emits as much carbon pollutants as 39 million passenger vehicles. When we waste food, we’re not just wasting food; we’re also wasting all the resources that went into growing it. A report by the NRDC, food waste ends up wasting nearly a quarter of our water supply in the form of uneaten food or over 172 billion dollars in waste water. Each, year, asa country we spend over 220 billion dollars, growing, transporting and processing but almost 70 million tons of food that we cultivate ends up going to waste. If the land we cultivate, growing food that goes to waste in US were all in one place, it would over more than 3/4th  of California. Growing food that goes to waste ends up 21% of our fresh water, 19% of our fertilizer, 18% of our cropland and 21% of our landfill volume. This comes with a heavy carbon footprint as well. The Global food system is responsible for upto 1/3rdof all human caused greenhouse gas emissions, makinglargest contributors to climate change, according to the Consultative Group on International Agriculture Research. The fact that we carelessly waste 40% of our food in the US and 33% globally means there is huge potential to reduce our Environmental footprint. Big picture energy and transportation tend to be the face of climate change but with food’s impact arguably larger it definitely deserves more of a focus. Reducing food waste is environmentally important as it keeps food out of landfills. It makes economic sense at the small scale by lowering household food bills and at the large scale by reducing disposal costs for restaurants, processors and farmers. In fact food wastage gives a big impact on climate, water, land and Bio-diversity. Wasting 1.3 billion tons of food causes huge economic losses and a lot of human life, also there are climate as well as environmental issues deeply connected to food waste, according to a report from UN’s Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO).

        Over 240 million slices of bread are chucked away every year, around 5.9 million glasses of milk are poured down the sink every year but it’s so easy to use it up, we discard 5.8 million potatoes each year, a staggering 1.3 million apples are thrown away each year. India waste Rs244 corer worth of food a day (Economic Times: June 8-2018). 18% of India’s fruit & vegetables production, valued at Rs13, 300 corers is wasted annually, according to Emerson Climate Technology India. According to FAO estimates in The State of Food Security & Nutrition in the World, 2018 report195.9 million people are undernourished in India. By this measure, 14.8% of the population is undernourished in India. Also 51.4% of women in reproductive age between 15 to 49 years are anemic. 1/3rd of the World’s hungry live in India.836 million Indians survive on less than Rs20/ a day. Over 20 corers Indian will sleep hungry everynight.10 million people die every year of chronic hunger and hunger related diseases. India has a significant proportion of women and children who are malnourished-the causes are manifold. In every minute of every day four children die of hunger in India. Over 7000 Indians die of hunger everyday .Over 25 lakh Indian die of hunger every year. The number of hunger people in India is always more than the number of people below official poverty line. The main cause of hunger Worldwide is poverty. Millions of people around the World are simply too poor to be enable to buy food. They also lack the resources to grow their own food, such as arable land and the means to harvest, process and store food. 25,000 people lose their lives every day as a result of hunger. That adds upto roughly 9.1 million people die of starvation each year according to FAO.

While India has been impressive in economic growth in recent year, the country still struggles with widespread poverty and hunger. India’s poor population amounts to more than 300 million people, with almost 30% of India’s rural population living in poverty. China, unlike India does not produce enough food for its population. While India does produce enough food, it is terribly callous about storage, wastage, distribution and mass affordability. Hunger exists in India because people cannot access the food, according to Global Hunger Index report. The national Food Security Act 2013(also known as Right to Food Act) is an Act of the Parliament of India which aims subsidized food grains to approximately 2/3rd of India’s 1.2 billion people; however it is still a Tiger on the Paper. India is home to 270 million hungry people, the highest in the World. India stands 97th in Oxfam’s Food Availability Index and 103rd in the 2018 Global Hunger Index.

Coming down to our state Manipur, we are facing an acute impact of Scarcity of food grains. The recent buzz in media about PDS under NFSA shows the clarity of the situation. The areas of arable land are reducing at a very high speed in the name of development &industrialization, which is a known fact. Last year’s flood as well as scarcity of water during the need hour of rice plants, reduced rice production drastically causing hike in the price of local rice at Rs50/- per kg now. The problem will be much grimmer in next year as no rain now for the cultivation of rice. At the same time we are still continuing the habit of spoiling foods during UTSAV,MANGANI CHAKOUBA, NAHUTPA,YEIGYA and many other social gathering & party, the result for which has been mentioned above. Again, little agricultural products of our poor farmers like vegetables, fruits etc. are also gone waste most of the time as there is not a single Cold storage in our state to store these products during peak time for using in lean period. Another pathetic situation faced by our poor farmers is that there is no proper market/ price regulation, resulting heavy losses due to regular and frequent price fluctuation of vegetable products. However we can reduce the wastage of food and hunger if-(i) we initiate more food collection drive (ii) Urban farming (iii) sustainable farming (iv)Government intervention honestly (v)birth control (vi) access to credit (vii) access to education. Now, it’s concerned for every citizen to think over the issue of food wastage and its effect in a wider spectrum before it is too late.

The need of IT in Legal Industry

As legal professionals position themselves to survive the peaks and troughs of an ailing economy, a number of distinct trends help how firms and organizations become more efficient, productive and competitive in a global market. Other trends result from changing demographic attitudes and work styles. Recent amendments to the Federal Rules  of Civil procedure make Electronically Stored Information(ESI) such as e-mails, instant messages,voicemails,e-Calendars,graphics and data on handheld devices discoverable in litigation.  The explosive growth of ESI has increased the cost and complexity of e-discovery processes and forever changed the face of large –scale complex litigation. Social networking has the potential to transform the business and practice of Law in the coming years. Legal professionals have a growing number of social media tools at their disposal to accomplish a variety of legal tasks and career objectives. Social networking is changing how legal professionals recruit, job hunt network, locate and discredit witnesses, manage their career and interact with clients. Social media tools such as LinkedIn, Facebook, Twitter and You Tube are also key market tools, helping lawyers and legal professionals reach a broad audiences and accomplish branding, advertising and client development goals. Powerful mobile devices, software –as-a-service and secure, web based technology allow legal professionals to work from virtually anywhere.As a result, more legal professionals are working remotely from home or a virtual law office. Virtual law offices provide an alternative method of practicing law that permits flexible work hours and fosters a better work/ life balance for legal professionals. Virtual work is not just for lawyers, a growing number of legal professionals are working remotely. Working virtually allows legal professionals to serve their employers and clients while life balance and modifying their schedule to fit personal and family needs. Lawyers no longer have a monopoly on the law. The legal marketplace is changing and clients can seek legal assistance from a growing number of non-lawyer professionals including paralegal technicians, legal documents preparers, legal self-help sites, virtual assistance and offshore legal vendors. These new options enable bringing affordable legal services to disadvantaged populations and empower citizens to address their own legal matters. As the cost of legal services continue to rise, new legal delivery model will continue to emerge and gain momentum in the coming years.
Indian legal industry has always had the impact of the advancement of Information Technology and has been the practice of digitization. Many Law firms and legal departments have started embracing these technologies and are keeping themselves updated with these recent trends in technology. The impact of legal technology is quickly changing the practice of Law firms and legal departments as they become more conscious of the cost efficiencies being shaped by information technology. Recent development in legal information technology are also simplifying the developments of business processes, new strategies management structures, conducive and collaborative and delivery-oriented systems. The main reason behind the interrelationship between the legal service providers and their clients are due to clients expectations. New entrants in the market, productization, strong price competition and alternative fee structures innovative delivery approaches. Due to their Law firms and legal departments have started to re-stratize their practice operations and models. Artificial Intelligence (AI) has been able to adopt the system of the legal industry and has been able to reduce the rote tasks. The introduction of Artificial Intelligence to legal technology has transformed the industry as well as digital applications like time-sheet, contract management, research, legal analytic etc. Legal technology is giving new possibilities to modernize the lawyers’ client relationship. Numerous portals and collaboration platforms are simplifying the system. Virtual presence and availability, providing faster turnaround time, transparency towards the matter status, research and audio or video facility documents showing along with refined security technology. With advancements in client interactions and communications, which were majorly meant to be personal meeting, calls and letters have now taken a shift towards Face time to text, video conferencing, and online dashboards with MIS etc.
Many law firms and legal departments have started showing major interest in cloud computing and started acquiring cloud based firm management software in areas such as document management, knowledge management, case management, client relationship management and human resource information system. Virtual computing tools are also assisting with the reduction in fixed costs and are allowing the lawyers to work remotely either from home ,courts, clients office etc. Effective case management applications are also on it. Being a service industry, it is vital and precarious for Law firms to track the profitability and productivity of the delivery. Factors like client generation, billed hours, billing receipts etc. have become crucial for practice. Legal technology has made it easy to create such reports and analyze the same. It has become computable to benchmark the groups by mapping their productivity and performance. The legal industry has travelled from manual discretionary performance assessment to automated human resource information system. In the recent years, many online platforms have come up which provides prospects to potential clients to connect with the lawyers for simple services ranging from trademark registration, leases, registration and execution of wills, contract and lease agreements, to dishonoring of cheques, recovering suits, consumers complaints  etc. These online legal service providers connect lawyers and categorize them as per their practice areas, localities and schedules making it easy for the client to do the cost evaluation apropos sensitivity of the matter. The Indian legal industry is one of the oldest professions and it is observing a change with the recent trends in legal technology. From the perspective of the clients the legal services have become low-priced and more accessible, whereas from the perspective of the firms they have become more profitable and productive. By adopting these technological trends it is not only saving money and time but also becoming enabler in nurturing relationship and assisting the firms to achieve the next level of growth.
So legal professionals need to learn IT skills, Knowledge of AI, creation of business plan to embrace AI, keeping informed about new source of ESI, importance of cloud security measure for efficient practices.

A tribute to Dr.APJ Abdul Kalam; Missiles man & people’s President of India

Today is the 88th birthday of Avul Pakir Jainulabdeen Abdul Kalam (APJ Abdul Kalam) who was born on 15th October 1931 to a Tamil Muslim family in the pilgrimage Centre of Rameswaram on PAMBAN Island, then in the Madras Presidency and now in the state of Tamil Nadu. His father Jainulabdeen was a boat owner and Imam of a local mosque, his mother Ashiamma was a housewife. Kalam was the youngest of four brothers and one sister in the family. The eldest of whom was a sister “Asim Zohra”, followed by three brothers: Mohammad Muthu Meera Lebbai Maraikayar,Mustafa kalam and Kashim Mohammad. He was extremely closed to his elder siblings and their extended families throughout his life and would regularly send small sums of money to his older relations, himself remaining a lifelong bachelor. Kalam was noted for his integrity and his simple lifestyle. He never owned a television and was in the habit of rising at 6:30 am or 7am and sleeping by 2am. His few personal possessions included his books, his Veena, some articles of clothing, a CD player and a laptop; at his death, he left no will, and his possession went to his eldest brother who survived him. Kalm’s father owned a ferry that took Hindu pilgrims back and forth between Rameswaram and now the uninhabited Dhanushkodi. His ancestors had been wealthy traders and owned with numerous properties and large tracts of land. Their business had involved trading groceries between the mainland and the Island and to and from Sri Lanka as well as ferrying pilgrims between the mainland and Pamban. As a result the family acquired the title of “Mara Kalam Iyakkivar” (means, wooden boat steerers), which over the years became shortened to “Marakier”. With the opening of the Pamban Bridge to the mainland in 1914, however the business failed and family fortune and properties were lost over time, apart from ancestral home. By his early childhood Kalam’s family had become poor; at an early age he sold newspaper to supplement his family income.      
In his school years, Kalam had average grades but was described as a bright hardworking student who had a strong desire to learn. He spent hours on his studies, especially Mathematics. After completing his education at the Schwartz Higher Secondary school Ramanathapuram, Kalam went to attend Saint Joseph’s College, Tiruchirappalli, then affiliated with the University of Madras, from where he graduated in Physics in 1954.  He moved to Madras in 1955 to study Aerospace Engineering in Madras Institute of Technology. While Kalam was working on a senior class project, the Dean was dissatisfied with his lack of progress and threatened to revoke his scholarship unless the project was finished within the next three days. Kalm met the deadline, impressing the Dean, who later said to him “I was putting you under stress and asking you to meet a difficult deadline”. He narrowly missed achieving his dream of becoming a fighter pilot as he was placed 9th in qualifiers and only eight positions were available in IAF. A proud and practicing Muslim, daily namaz and fasting during Ramadan were integral to Kalam’s life. He was fond of saying:” For Great men, religion is a way of making friends; small people make religion a fighting tool”. In addition to his faith in the Koran and Islamic practice, Kalam was well versed in Hindu traditions; he learnt Sanskrit, read the BHAGAVAD GITA; and he was a vegetarian. Kalam’s desire to meet spiritual leaders to help create a more prosperous ,spiritual and unified India was  what initially led him to meet Pramukh Swami, the Hindu Guru of BAPS Swaminarayan Sampradaya who Kalam would come to consider his ultimate spiritual teacher and guru. His father had also impressed upon the young Kalam,the value of interfaith, respect and dialogue. As Kalam recalled: “Every evening, my father A.P. Jainulabdeen, an Imam, Pakshi Lakshmana sastry, the head priest of the Ramanathaswamy Hindu temple and a church priest used to sit with hot tea and discussed the issues concerning the Pamban Island”. Such early exposure convinced Kalam that the answer to Indian’s multitudinous issues lay in dialogue and cooperation among the country’s religion, social and political leaders.       
After graduation from Madras Institute of Technology in 1960, Kalam joined the Aeronautical Development Establishment of the Defense Research and Development Organization as a member after becoming a member of Defense Research and Development Service (DRDS). He started his career by designing a small hovercraft but remained unconvinced by his choice of a job at DRDO. Kalam was also part of INCOSPAR Committee working under Vikram Sarabhai, the renowned space scientist. In 1969, Kalam was transferred to the Indian Space Research Organization (ISRO) where he was the project Director of India’s first satellite Launch Vehicle (SLV-III) which successfully deployed the Rohini satellite in near-earth orbit in July 1980; Kalam had first started work on an expandable Rocket project independently at DRDO in 1965. In 1969, Kalam received the government’s approval and expanded the programme to include more Engineers. In 1963 to 1964, he visited NASA’s Langley Research Centre in Hampton, Virginia; Goddard Space Flight Centre in Greenbelt, Maryland; and Wallops Flight Facility. Between 1970s and 1990s, Kalam made an effort to develop the polar Satellite Launch Vehicle (PSLV) and SLV-II projects, both of which proved to be successful. In 1970s Kalam also directed two projects-project Devil and project Valiant which sought to develop ballistic missiles from the technology of successful SLV programme. Despite the disapproval of the Union cabinet, Prime Minister Indira Gandhi allotted secrete funds for these aerospace projects through her discretionary powers under Kalam’s directorship. His research and educational leadership brought him great laurels and prestige in 1980s which prompted the government to initiate and advanced missile programme under his directorship. Kalam was the chief executive for the Integrated Guided Missile Development programme. Kalam played a major role in developing many missile under the mission including AGNI an intermediate range ballistic missile, PRITHIVI, the tactical surface to surface missile. He thus came to be known as the “MISSILE MAN OF INDIA. He also played a pivotal organizational, technical and political role in India’s POKHRAN-II nuclear tests in 1998, the first since the original nuclear tests “SMILING BUDHA” by India at Pokhran in 1974. In 1998, along with Cardiologist SOMA RAJU, Kalam developed a low cost coronary stent, named “KALAM-RAJU” stent. In 2012 the duo designed a rugged tablet computer for healthcare in rural areas which was named the “Kalam-Raju Tablet”. Kalam received 7 honorary doctorates from 40 universities. The Government of India honoured him with Padma Bhushan in 1981 and the Padma Vibhushan in 1990 for his work with ISRO and DRDO and his role as a scientific advisor to the Government. In 1997, Kalam received India’s highest civilian honor, the Bharat Ratna, for his contribution to the scientific research and modernization of defense technology in India. In 2013, he was the recipient of the Von Braun Award from the National Space Society to recognize excellence in the management and leadership of a space –related project. In 2012, Kalam was ranked number 2 in Outlook India’s poll of the Greatest Indian.         
Kalam served as the 11th President of India, succeeding K.R Narayanan. His term lasted from 25th July 2002 to 25th July 2007.During his term as president ,he was affectionately known as the “ PEOPLE’s PRESIDENT, saying that signing the office of profit Bill was the toughest decision he had taken during his tenure. Kalam was criticized for his inaction in deciding the fate of 20 out of 21 mercy petitions submitted to him during his tenure. Article 72 of Indian Constitution empowers the President of India to grant pardons and suspends or commute the death sentences of convicts on death row. Kalam acted only one mercy plea in his five years tenure as president, rejecting the plea of rapist Dhananjoy Chatterjee, who was later hanged. Perhaps the most notable plea was from Afzal Guru, a Kashmiri terrorist who was convicted on conspiracy in the December 2001 attack on the Indian Parliament and was sentenced to death by Supreme Court of India in 2004, while the sentence was scheduled to be carried out on 20th October 2006, the plea resulted in him remaining on death row. He also took the controversial decision to impose President’s Rule in Bihar in 2005. In September 2003, in an interactive session in PGI Chandigarh, Kalam supported the need of uniform civil code in India keeping in view the population. During his tenure as President of India, on 12th April 2006, Gin Gangte, then a mere School Head Master of a hill village Bunglon (now a member of the Indian Information Service) in Churachandpur District of Manipur, met the President Dr. APJ Abdul Kalam at Rastrapati Bhawan in new Delhi and invited him to visit the Bunglon; to know the real faces of India to which Kalam promised to make a visit at the Village. Six months down the line the President fulfilled his promised with the “Great October Visit” on 16th October 2006, which turned the village and it’s surrounding a new life which was unattended for the last 70 years.         
After leaving office, Kalam became visiting professor at the Indian Institute of Management Shillong, Ahmedabad, Indore and an honorary fellow of Indian Institute of Science ,Bangalore; Chancellor of the Indian Institute of Space Science and Technology, Thiruvanant hapuram;  professor of Aerospace Engineering at Ana university and an adjunct at many other academic and research Institutions across India. He taught Information Technology at the International Institute of Information Technology, Hyderabad. In May 2012, Kalam launched a programme for the youths of India called “What Can I give Movement” with the central theme of defeating corruption. On 27th July 2015, Kalam travelled to Shillong to delivered a lecture on “Creating a livable Planet Earth” at the Indian Institute of Management Shillong. At about 6:35pm IST; only five minutes into his lecture, he collapsed and rushed to the nearby Hospital but he breathed last at 7:45pm IST due to sudden cardiac arrest. His last words to his aide Srijan Pal Singh were “Funny Guy! Are you doing well? Thus Missile man of India and people’s President bade good bye to us for his heavenly abode forever leaving behind a vacuum which will be hard to fill.