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Sanjenbam Jugeshwor Singh

Sanjenbam Jugeshwor Singh

Sanjenbam Jugeshwor Singh is a regular contributor of Imphal Times. Presently, he is teaching Mathematics at NIELIT. Jugeshwor can be reached at: [email protected] Or WhatsApp’s No: 9612891339.

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Recycling of Plastic Waste & its application

Plastic recycling is the process of recovering scrap or waste plastic and reprocessing the material into useful products. Since the vast majority of plastic is non-biodegradable, cycling is a part of global efforts to reduce the plastic in the waste stream, especially the approximately 8 million tons of waste plastic that enters the Earth’s Ocean every year. Compared with lucrative recycling of metals and similar to the low value of glass, plastic polymers recycling is often more challenging, because of low density and low value. There are also numerous technical hurdles to overcome when recycling plastic. When different types of plastics are melted together, they tend to phase separate, like oil and water and set in these layers. The phase boundaries cause structural weakness in the resulting material: meaning that polymer blends are useful in only limited applications. The two most widely manufactured plastics, polypropylene and polyethylene behave this way, which limits their utility for recycling.

Recently the use of block copolymers as “molecular stitches” or “macromolecular welding flux” has been proposed to overcome the difficulties associated with phase separation during recycling. The percentage of plastic that can be fully recycled rather than down cycled or go to waste can be increased when manufacturing of packaged goods, minimize mixing or packaging materials and eliminate contaminates. The use of biodegradable plastic or plastic which can be organically recycled or can be composted in Industrial composting is increasing for certain short lived packaging applications. Biodegradable plastics are plastics that can be decomposed by the action of living organisms, usually bacteria. Before recycling, most plastics are sorted according to their resin type. In the past, plastic re claimers used  the resin identification code(RIC),a method of categorization of polymer type which was developed by the Society of Plastic Industry in 1988.Some plastic products are also separated by color before they are recycled. The plastic recyclable are then shredded. These shredded fragments then undergo processes to eliminate impurities like paper labels. The materials melted are often extruded into the form of pellets which are then used to manufacture other products. Recycling also keeps plastic out of landfills where it can take 500 years to break down.

Plastic pyrolysis can convert petroleum based waste streams such as plastic into fuels and carbons. Heat compression takes all unsorted cleaned plastic in all forms, from soft plastic bags to hard industrial waste and mixes the load in tumblers. The most obvious benefit to the method is that all plastic is recyclable, not just matching form. For some waste plastics, technical devices called recyclebots enable a form of distributed recycling. Post-consumer polyethylene terephthalate (PET or PETE) containers are sorted into different color fractions and baled for onward sale. PET recyclers further sort the baled bottles and they are washed and flaked or flaked and washed. Non-PET fractions such as caps and labels are removed during the process. The clean flake is dried. Further treatment can take place e.g melt filtering and pelletizing or various treatments to produce food-contact approved recycled PET (RPET). RPET has been widely used to produce polyester fibers. One used of this recycled PET is to create fabric to be used in clothing Industry.The recycled PET thread or yarn can be used either alone or together with other fibers to create a wide variety of fabrics. Traditionally these fabrics are used to create strong, durable, and rough products such as jackets, coats, shoes, bags, hats and accessories, since they are usually too rough for direct skin contact and can cause irritation. Other major outlets for RPET are new containers (food-contact or non-contact) produced either by molding into bottles and jars or by thermoforming APET sheet to produce clamshells, blister packs and collation trays. High density polyethylene (HDPE) is a commonly recycled plastic. HDPE’s highly crystalline structures makes it a strong high density moderately stiff plastic. Often, it is typically down cycled into plastic lumber,tables,roadside curbs,benches,trucks cargo liners,trash receptacles,stationery ( e.g rulers) and other durable plastic products and is widely in demand. Expanded polystyrene (EPS) scrap can easily be added to products such as EPS insulation sheets and other EPS materials for construction applications. When it is not used to make more EPS,foam scrap can be turned into clothes hangers, Park benches, flower pots,toys,rulers,stapler bodies,seedling containers, picture frames and architectural molding from recycled polystyrene(PS). Recycled EPS is also used in many metal casting operations.Rastra is made from EPS that is combined with cement to be used as an insulating amendment in the making of concrete foundries and walls. Since 1993 American manufacturers have produced insulating concrete forms made with approximately 80% recycled EPS. Israel have shown that plastic films recycled from mixed municipal waste streams can be recycled into useful household products such as buckets. Similarly agricultural plastics such as mulch film, drip tape and silage bags are being diverted from the recycled waste streams and successfully recycled into much larger products for Industrial applications such as plastic composite railroad ties. Historically these agricultural plastic have primarily been either land filled or burned on-site in the fields of individuals’ farms.

CNN reports that Dr.S.Madhu of Kerala  Highway Research Institute,India has formulated a road surface  that includes recycled plastics, aggregate ,bitumen(asphalt) with plastic that has been shredded and melted at a temperature below 2200C (4280F) to avoid pollution. This road surface is claimed to be very durable and monsoon rain resistant. Keeping in mind, lack of manufacturing opportunities in Manipur, a father –son duo from Manipur, decided to start a manufacturing unit of their own. After years of hard work, Sadokpam Itombi Singh and his father Sadokpam Gunakanta have established a successful operation of recycling program at Sagolband sadokpam leikai in Imphal. SJ Plastic Industry, started by Mr Itombi, could build pipes, other household items, tubes and flower pots from plastic waste. “Plastic is very Important and how to dispose is also equally important” Mr Itombi said. Currently as many as 120 types of plastics have been identified in Manipur alone. Out of 120, almost 30 are recycled in Manipur while the remaining are sent to Delhi and Guwahati after compression process. On 24th May 2018, Chairman Manipur Pollution Control Board also sent a written intimation to the Manipur Public Works Dept. giving instruction to make use of plastic waste in road construction mandatory in the state as is done in Kerala. It will be a good step forward if Government of Manipur execute this practice in reality to avoid the threat of plastic pollution in our Environment. Plastic are recyclable, we need to make conscious efforts to recycle such waste so that they can be used for other purpose, instead of allowing them to pollute our water bodies and land.


Causes & possible remedial steps of Unemployment in Manipur

 Manipur is strategically located in India’s northeast. It is the gate way to the economies of Southeast Asia. Manipur is multi-ethnic, multi-linguistic and multi-religious, comprising of the Meiteis (the majority ethnic group),Kukis,Pangals(Manipuri Muslims) and Nagas. The Meiteis& Meitei Pangalare mainly concentrated in the Imphalvalley, theKukis and Nagas in the hills. Manipur may be classified into two distinct physical regions-an outer rings of rugged hills and narrow valleys and the inner area of flat plains, with all associated land forms. These two areas are not only distinct in respect of physical features but also in terms of development and employment, wherein the valley area is much better off in both these contexts.
According to the 2011 census, Manipur has a total population of 27, 21,756lakhs, with 26.18% in urban areas and remainder 73.82% in rural areas. The literacy rate stands at 79.85% ,higher than the national average of 74.04%,of that ,male literacy stands at 86.49% and female literacy at 73.17%.However,despite the high literacy rate, Manipur as compared to the rest of the country, remains a socio-economically backward state. The economy of Manipur is characterized by high rate of unemployment and poverty, low capital formation, inadequate infrastructural facilities, geographically isolation, communication bottlenecks and practically no industrialization. Agriculture continues to be the mainstay of the economy with more than 70% of the population dependent on it for livelihood. The employment situation in Manipur is a matter of concern, with most of it being a rural phenomenon. The number of persons on the live register of the employment exchange rose from 2.28 lakh as on 30thJune 1993 to 7.14 lakhs as on 30th June 2012, which could be much more than this because many are still not registered in the employment exchange. The high rate of unemployment, particularly among educated youth is due to the lack of industrial base, the absence of private enterprise and limited employment opportunity in the government sector. It is open-secrete that every government job has a price tag. Those boys and girls whose parents cannot afford large amounts to be paid as bribe are disillusioned and become susceptible to anti-national propaganda. Geographical isolation, political hopelessness, lack of infrastructure development, lack of incentive for private enterprises participation and poor trade opportunities could be the reason why educated youth seek financial security by joining in many illegal activities like drug trafficking, sex rackets, imposter as insurgent and imposed financial demands to many. In fact, considering the large number of educated unemployed, such unlawful, illegal and immoral practices/activities are fast emerging as an alternate and lucrative means of unemployment.
Such is the demand of government jobs in Manipur that in2011, when the state government employed some 1000 men to form an armed Village Defense Force(VDF),it had received application from some 17,000 people who were either graduates or postgraduates whereas state was looking to hire who had not even completed school. Lack of access to quality and affordable education as well as vocational training institute outside the capital city of Imphal has often led to students from other parts of the state dropping out before acquiring any meaningful educational qualification. The report of the Higher Education Commission has noted this glaring disparity between Imphal valley and the rest of the state. The education infrastructure is primitive and quality education is almost non-existent in areas outside Imphal. This disparity has affected higher education adversely, particularly in the hills where even the basic infrastructure and minimum teaching staff are found lacking. There is also a serious deficiency of Math and science teachers in schools, especially those located in tribal areas. Hence local students are unable to compete in state and national level competitive exams. There is an urgent need to strengthen the educational infrastructure in Manipur to provide quality and inclusive education. The graduates’courses currently available in various colleges within Manipur are of the traditional nature, which is about learning basic science or arts or commerce. Such degree do not throw open many employment avenues outside or within the state, adding to the already high rate of educated unemployment. The course content, therefore need restructuring to refocus efforts at application oriented learning, resulting in skilled manpower for employment in emerging industries. Therefore effective implementation of skill development and training programs also need to be prioritized. There is also the need to create avenues for absorbing trained and skilled manpower in suitable jobs without which it would be difficult to wean the youth away from the lure of earning easy income through many illegal and immoral activities.
Manipur, with its salubrious climate, topographical mystique, cultural heritage and sublime natural beauty has an enormous tourism potential. The state has immense tourism and commercial potential and is destined to become a commercial hub and a tourist hotspot in South-East Asia. Thus, developing Manipur’s tremendous tourism potential could help generate a range of employment opportunities for the local people. However to attract the attention of national and international tourist, it is imperative to ensure a safe and secure environment along with necessary investment in building a modern hospitality infrastructure. The socio-economic development of Manipur will also largely depend on the promotion of small and medium scale industries and encouragement to local entrepreneurs. The scope for large scale industries too exists in the agro-horticulture, bamboo, cement, green marble and power sectors. Investment in these sectors could help generate direct and indirect employment in setting up various forward and backward linkages to support service sector units. At present, the role of the private sector in the state is minimal. Most of the private participants choose to stay out of Manipur due to lack of infrastructure support and security concerns. The government needs to focus on developing local skills and capacities as part of the self-employment program (SEP) to harness the potential of the youths in Manipur. One area that certainly needs to be tapped into is the ability of the youth to communicate in good English, hence developing BPO or front office or air hostess kind of skills. Manipur is known for its sporting talents especially in the fields of boxing, football, archery, mixed martial arts etc.Many young sportspersons find it easier to prove their sporting talent by representing another state at national and international levels due to lack of adequate training and sporting facilities in the state. The creation of sports facilities at villages, block and district levels will help in keeping the youth engaged in sports, a constructive and positive activity thus weaning them away from alcoholism, drug addiction and juvenile delinquency. Similarly, the cultural talents in the field of music, dance, art and cinema is unique to the state. If this culture is preserved and given the exposure that it deserves, many youth could benefit from it by the employment opportunities arising out of it. Manipur is blessed with a climate suitable for producing a variety of agricultural produce and that is the reason why farmers grow cash crops, fruits and vegetables in large quantities. Hilly areas are conducive for the farming of vegetables and fruits, organic farming has already commenced in many hill areas of the state. Many agro-horticultural crops are potential export commodities. The agro-based industry includes fruits preparations, juice concentrate plants, herbal plants, processing of spices and so on. These farm produce along with bamboo shoots are used for commercial purpose. Since the cultivated land is under 10% of the total land area in Manipur, optimizing the use of the balance 90% land and newer/ innovative methods to increase production in the wake of expansion of the residential areas would help in addressing the unemployment issue indirectly. Unlike other states, Manipur has restricted publicity mechanism and as a result even the daily newspapers reach a day later in the remote interiors and hills districts. This has caused many youths to lose opportunities of getting a job due to lack of awareness of recruitment/ interview/selection program. There is an urgent requirement of setting up job fairs and job melaetc at such areas.

Unemployment, especially among the educated youth of Manipur is a problem both of the individual as well as the society around that person. It psychologically, financially,emotionally and materially affects the youths and their families. It brings in a sense of dejection, inferiority and hopelessness among the youths. Due to frustration, anger and disenchantment, youth often succumb to other alternatives including alcoholism, drug addiction, robbery, murder and suicide as well as joining other illegal and immoral activities for easy money. There is an urgent need to take concrete steps to address the issue before it goes out of hand. In fact, it should force us to think what ails the education system and employment avenues in Manipur? The problem of educated unemployment is mainly two folds, firstly scarcity of government jobs and secondly the virtual lack of any other employer in Manipur. Improving infrastructure in general and promoting human resource development with effective and people-oriented governance, is thus critical to ushering peace in Manipur and other parts of Northeast India. Creating additional employment opportunities to help the immense human and natural potential could go a long way in addressing the aspirations of the unemployed youth of the region in general.

Net-work Marketing-”Selling the dream”

Multi-level marketing(MLM),also called pyramid selling, network marketing and referral marketing is a marketing strategy for the sale of products  or services where the revenue of the MLM company is derived from a non-salaried workforce, selling the company’s products/services, while the earnings of the participants are derived  from a pyramid-shaped or binary compensation commission system. A pyramid scheme is a business that recruits members via a promise of payments or services for enrolling others into the scheme, rather than supplying investment or sale of products. As recruiting multiplies, recruiting become quickly impossible and most members are unable to make profit as such pyramid schemes are unsustainable and often illegal though the schemes have existed for at least a century in different guise. Although, each MLM company dictates its own specific financial compensation plan for the payout of any earnings to their respective participants, the common features that is found across all MLMs is that the compensation plans theoretically pay out to participants only from two potential revenue streams. The first is paid out from commissions of sales made by the participants directly to their own retail customers. The second is paid out from commissions based upon the wholesale purchases made by other distributors below the participants who have recruited those other participants into the MLM; in the organizational hierarchy of MLMs, these participants are referred to as one’s down line distributors.
     MLM salespeople are therefore expected to sell products directly to end-user retail consumers by means of relationship referrals and word of mouth marketing, but most importantly they are incentivized to recruit others to join the company’s distribution chain as fellow salespeople so that these can become down the distributors. According to a report that studied the business models of 350 MLMs, published on Federal Trade Commission’s website, at 99% of people who join MLM companies lose money. Nonetheless, MLMs function because downline participants are encouraged to hold on to the belief that they can achieve large returns, while the statistical improbability of this is de-emphasized. MLMs have been made illegal or otherwise strictly regulated in some jurisdictions as a mere variation of the traditional pyramid scheme including mainland China. The overwhelming majority of MLM participants (most sources estimated to be 99.25% of all MLM distributors) participate at either an insignificant or nil net profit. Indeed, the largest proportion of participants must operate at a net loss (after expenses are deducted) so that the few individuals in the uppermost level of the MLM pyramid can derive their significant earnings. Said earnings are then emphasized by the MLM Company to encourage their continued participation at a continuing financial loss.
    The end result of the MLM business model is, therefore one of a company (the MLM company) selling its products and services through a non-salaried workforce (Partners) working for the MLM company on a commission only basis while the partners simultaneously constitute the overwhelming majority of the vary consumers of the MLM company’s products and services that they, as participants of the MLM,are selling to each other in the hope of one day themselves being at the top of the pyramid. This creates great profit for MLM company’s actual owners and shareholders. Many MLM companies do generate billions of dollars in annual revenue and hundreds of millions of dollars in annual profit. However the profit of the MLM Company are accrued at the detriment to the majority of the Company’s constituent workforce (the MLM participants).Only some of the said profit is then significantly shared with individuals’participants at the top of the MLM distributorship pyramid. The earning of those top few participants is emphasized and championed at Company’s seminars and Conferences, thus creating an illusion of how one can potentially become financially successful if they become a participant in the MLM. This is then advertised by the MLM Company to recruit more distributors to participate in the MLM with a false anticipation of earning margins which are in reality theoretical and statistically improbable. The main sales pitch of MLM Companies to their participants and prospective participants is not the Company’s products or services. The product/services are largely peripheral to the MLM model. Rather the true sales pitch and emphasis is on a confidence given to participants of potential financial independence through participation in the MLM luring with phrases like “life style you deserve” or “independent distributor”. Erik German’s memoir “My Father’s Dream” documents the real life failure of German’s father as he lured into “get-rich-quick “schemes such as Amway. The memoir illustrates the multi-level marketing (MLM) sales principles known as “Selling the dreams”.
    Although emphasis is always made on the potential of success and positive life change that “might or could” (not “will or can”)result, it is only in otherwise difficult to find disclosure statements (or at the very least, difficult to read and interpretdisclosure statements), that MLM participants are given fine print disclaimers that they as participants should not rely on the earning results of other participants in the highest levels of MLM participants pyramid as an indication of what they should expect to earn. MLMs very rarely emphasize the extreme likelihood of failure or the extreme likelihood of financial loss from participation in MLM. MLM are also seldom forthcoming about the fact that any significant success of the new individuals at the top of the MLM participant pyramid is in fact dependent on the continual financial loss and failure of all other participants below them in MLM pyramid. MLMs have been made illegal in some jurisdiction as a mere variation of the traditional pyramid scheme including in China. In jurisdiction where MLMs have not been made illegal, many illegal pyramid schemes attempts to present themselves as MLM business. Given that overwhelming majority of MLM participants cannot realistically make a net profit, let alone a significant net profit but instead overwhelmingly operate a net losses, some sources have defined all MLMs as a type of pyramid scheme, even if they have not been made illegal like traditional pyramid scheme through legislative statutes. MLMs are designed to make profit for the owner/ shareholders of the Company and a few individual participants at the top levels of the MLM pyramid of participants.

     In Manipur’s context, it is a well-known fact that many families have been broken and many become slaves due to heavy loss in many fraud MLMs schemes like Unipay-2(commonly known as pokhaibi in Manipur), Visarev, Forex Achievement,Conlift, Zion etc.In spite of all these facts, the trend is still continuing in Manipur in a wide spectrum. Many participants of MLMs whoseproducts are mainly health care or cosmetics or food supplements etc drop their mouth wide open to blow the innocent people ,explaining many intricate and valuable scientific procedures and practices which a medical practitioner / dietician who undergone the study for many years even cannot explain and understand. At the same time all our hard earned money are taken away or drained out of our economically backward state just for the benefit of few people because of illusion that one day he/she will become a billionaire.There is an interesting story in this regard:one day a truck driver got stuck his truck at Kangla Park road near Johnstone School as a big Bazar Bull blocked the road though he trumpet his horn. Suddenly a smart young man in white shirt, black trouser and neck tie with a bag in his hand arrived at the spot. The man asked the driver what was his dismay? The truck driver told all the stories. Then the young man simply went near the bull and whisper something to the bull. The bull suddenly got up and ran away. To his astonishment the driver asked the young man how he could drive out the bull which the driver could not for long time. The young man said, I asked the bull to join one MLM (network marketing) scheme. That’s why the bull ran away, explained the young man. If this is so, the bull even does not want to join any kind of MLM or network marketing. Let all of us in Manipur try to understand the stigma behind the MLM (network marketing) scheme before our families are broken. If we still continue this trend, then will it be wrong to say that we are more foolish than the bull?

Are our Journalists Safe & Secured?

The safety and security of Journalist has never been a matter of serious concern for both Indian Academy and media industries. Despite several journalists associations, serving Journalists deployed in the areas of conflict and crisis across borders (North-East or Kashmir or North-West across the borders of Pakistan and Afghanistan) repeatedly demanding for the removal of impunity to the military, armed police and special armed constabulary, the government’s apathy continued unabated. Recently International Federation of Journalists (IFJ) in its report on “End Impunity in India” has written that the journalists association in India including IFJ affiliates, the Indian Journalists Union (IJU) and national Union of Journalists (India) have been expressing deep concern at the slow progress of investigation on killings of Journalists. They have been demanding a separate law for the protection of Journalists and speedy prosecution in case of murder. In 2015, the press Council of India (PCI) recommended that the Central Bureau of Investigation, an independent body, conduct investigation into the killings of Journalists in 2016.The report also added that Journalists in rural areas and small towns, especially those working for regional language medias apparent to be more vulnerable to intimidation and attack and even being killed for their works. Many take grave risks to expose crime and nexus between the law enforcing agencies and politicians. Geographical locations, class, caste and social network are as significant as job security and backing by the employer. Freelancers’ stringers and those on precarious contract were more at risk and their killers more likely to get away with murder. Ironically, it is these intrepid freelance Journalists’ and stringers who uncover major scams and corruption where corporate-backed media house fear to tread.
The recent spate of killings of reputed Indian journalist, GauriLankesh of Bengaluru, K.J Singh (Punjab), BhaumikSantanu and SudipDattaBhaumik (Tripura ) and Rajesh Mishra ( Uttar Pradesh ) has once again brought to the fore the stark realities of threats hanging over the lives of intrepid Journalists who have evinced a lot of courage to espouse the causes of truth. While these Journalists did not die in cross firing across border of India, they fell to the bullets of mafia that operated in tandem with the local feudalists or capitalists or factionist groups catering to the political clouts in their respective areas of reporting. The unfortunate assassination of K.J Singh further heightened the magnitude of the crisis as his 92 year old mother was also eliminated during attempt to assassinate him. Despite all these happening, there is a trepid or lukewarm response both from government and media-house, besides Indian Academy. There is the horrendous fact that every year India is losing not less than 10 to 15 precious lives of Journalists, on average, mostly drawn from the conflict areas such as the North-East or Kashmir or the border areas in North-West, or from the Naxal-infested forest areas of Chhattisgarh, Odisha and Andhra Pradesh. But for playing the requiem in the last-post blare, the Journalists who laid down their lives for the honor of the nation or for a greater cause have not received any honors-either from the Government of India or from the agencies they work for. While the role of the Government of India in neglecting the “Safety & security of Journalists”, covering risk zone has been writ large for over decades since independence, the apathy of the news agencies in the private sector to provide safety and security to working Journalists in risk zone is deplorably apparent. Another interesting dimensions to this grossly neglected area is that no media Organization carries out any protest campaign or movement, even if its own Journalists are killed. It is true that the killing of Journalists in India is very high compared with other countries in South-Asia and elsewhere. As rightly observed in the report of International Federation of Journalists in 2016, the Uttar Pradesh is the most dangerous one followed by a number of other states in North-East (Assam, Manipur and Arunachal Pradesh),in the North (Kashmir, Himachal Pradesh and Punjab) and in North-West (Rajasthan).Among south Indian states, Karnataka registered a high incidence of the killing of working Journalists followed by Chhattisgarh, Odisha and Andhra Pradesh. More than urban-centric Journalists, the rural Journalists stringers and freelancers face more risk to their life when they endeavor to report corruption in higher political circles.
According to IFJ report in 2012, about 73 Journalists have been killed since 2005 and 95 Journalists were slain during 1990-2004. According to a report of the Committee to protect Journalists (CPJ) in 2016,”Getting Away with Murder: 2016 Global Impunity Index” in at least 40% of the cases, the victim reported receiving threats before they were actually killed. Neither the police nor the management of media house have ever taken these matters seriously. This kind of apathy makes it an all the more important case for an imperative study of several dimensions involved in the indispensable “Security and safety of Journalist” reporting on sensitive matters such as crime, corruption and politics.
     A report published by the Press Trust of India (PTI) in2014, carried out the news that among 23 Journalists killed in 2013 in South-Asia, 12 were from India alone. The report also indicated the government for not solving the mystery of the killings of the Journalists. The PTI report in 2014, quoting the IFJ report of 2012, said that most disturbing development is the increasingly targeted nature of violence in both Pakistan and India. The report of PTI in 2015 and 2016 also said that most of the murders of Journalists remained mysterious and unsolved. Actually in many cases, the trial of the accused did not even take off. The latest report of CPJ said that about 11 Journalists identified as working on corruption and politics were killed in the last 10 years and their murder mystery is not yet resolved by the police. It means that they were perfectly planned murders destined to escape from the long arms of law. The CPJ report (2015) published in “The Hoot” portal under the title “Getting Away with Murder”, has stated that India’s impunity index rating is 0.08 making India’s presence among the countries known for killing Journalist with impunity for eight successive years in a row. In 2017, the IFJ demanded that the Central Government should bring in a law that ensures the security and protection of the working Journalists and freelancers operating in Maoist or extremist infested areas such as North-East, Central and South India, as reported by PTI in2016. It is also demanded the Government to bring in an insurance scheme of not less than 100 million rupees for scribes so that their families do not suffer economically if something unfortunate befalls on their families. A report by Freedom House in 2016 said that with the expansion of freedom and democracy around the world, the freedom of press touched its lowest point in last 12 years owing to political criminals and terrorist forces seeking to co-opt or silence the media in their struggle for power. The report further analyzed that heightened partisanship and polarization in a country’s media environment and the degree of extra-legal intimidation and physical violence against Journalists.Reporters Sans Frontiersin its report held the view that mafia and cartels began to pose the biggest threat to media freedom worldwide.

       In the case of North-East India, the media was caught between various militant outfits as well as police or military. The Manipur press also confronts a similar threatening situations. On the one side, the media personnel get threats of killing from different militant outfits and on the other side, the police and the military threatens media of dire consequences including threats of encounter. There are twin reasons for this: first the militants’ outfits wage war with the state of Manipur and Government of India and second, they enter into conflicts with other militant outfits to gain upper hand in the region. As a result they send different notices of threats and blockades to media for publication. If media publish one outfit’s notice, it will invite the wrath of rival militant’s outfits. Against the backdrop, the media associations have promulgated a code of conduct for all its media personnel on 19th June 2005 which is still in force. Besides this, Journalists in Manipur also got threats from the coteries of high profile and powerful politicians for exposing their loopholes and wrong doing to the public.One such a case has been reported that the editor of a leading English Evening daily was questioned by two close associates of a heavy weight politicians of Manipur for allegedly reporting misappropriation of MP Local Area Development (MPLAD) fundon 30th June 2019. Recently one Manipuri Journalist was also booked under NSA on the ground that he used derogatory words in social media against CM of Manipur and PM of India. A journalist in western Uttar Pradesh’s Shamli was beaten up on camera by a group of GRP, personnel led by SHO Rakesh Kumar in the night of Tuesday the 11th June 2019 when he went to cover a train derailment. He was forced to strip, thrashed and even urinated in his mouth. In another incident, MitaliChandola a female journalist was shot at in east Delhi’s Vasundhara Enclave by some masked men inside the car and threw eggs before speeding away. She was then admitted to hospital. Killing and threats to Journalist are due to different reasons. The reason arises from the depth of Indian Social and political complexities. Government needs to enforce a law for safety and security of the Journalist so that what is called 4th pillar of democracy (Journalism) can work proactively for good Governance and welfare of our people.
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