Saturday, 05 October 2019 - Imphal Times

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Imphal, Oct 5

The United Tribal Peoples’ Organisation (UTPO), Tengnoupal District has extended its moral support to the 48 hours bandh called by the All Tribal Sand-stone Labour Association (ATSLA), Moreh starting from 5 am of tomorrow.

The UTPO said that it is not the duty of Manipur Government to ban stone- sand mining and transportation from in and around Moreh including the national highway.

“These small businesses support the livelihood of many people in small town and villages which the government could not supply to the poor. The banning only decreases the economy of Manipur, particularly, the poor and un-employed people” a statement by UTPO said.

The organization appealed the Government departments, organisations, people or any one for that matter, not to disturb/ ban the vehicular movement which carries stone, timber or sand in the national highway.

The UTPO also questioned the rationality and the hidden agenda on the part of security check-post (s) to ask written permission of the forest  department when people are doing small business  from the products of their own land, which a legal business.

“Do we need to take permission when we established a sawmill in our own compound with the timbers grown in our own-forest, land owned by us since from our great-grand ancestors”, the UTPO question.

These kinds of actions are irrational, illegal, unconstitutional on the part of forest departments. It violates the right of the tribal people. It’s an illegal encroachment of our rights. It’s nothing but, indirect attacks on the tribals and their right to livelihood it added.

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Imphal, Oct 5

Like every year the10th State Level Children’s Cultural Meet, was held on Saturday the 5th of October 2019 at Tribal Research Institute Auditorium Hall, Chingmeirong, Imphal. This is a major calendar event for the Manipur Alliance for Child Rights (MACR) which  has been working in the field of child rights in association with Child Rights and You for the last 19 years in the state of Manipur.

Titular King of Manipur Leishemba Sanajaoba, graced the occasion as Chief Guest while S. Saratkumar Sharma, Former Chairperson, Manipur Commission for Protection of Child Rights presided the function. Ashim Kumar Ghosh, Associate General Manager, Child Rights & You (CRY), Kolkata and Montu Ahanthem the main behind the programme attended as Guests of Honour respectively.

Pooja Elangbam IAS the special guest of the function gave an inspirational speech to the young childrens of Manipur. 

In connection with the programme four persons who rendered remarkable contributions towards combating child trafficking, containing child sexual abuse, and showing proactive roles of media for protection and promotion of child rights in the state were honoured.

This year the MACR Child Rights Awards have been conferred to Thiyam Rajkishore, Chairperson,  Child  Welfare Committee Imphal West, Thounaojam Brinda (MPS),  Addl. Superintendent of Police Narcotics and Affairs of Borders (NAB) Manipur , Arambam Anilkumar  (MES) Zonal Education Officer,  Zone III Thoubal and Rinku Khumukcham  Editor,  Imphal Times

Speaking on the occasion Leishemba Sanajaoba stressed on the need to groom children of today for the future of the society. He appealed people to be aware of such incident need to be well cultured so that children of tomorrow live a peaceful and prosperous live.

A motivational speech by Pooja Elangbam IAS, kept the packed auditorium of TRI to a complete silence. However at the end of her speech the auditorium was again filled with applause.

Montu Ahanthem in his keynote address highlighted that MACR since the year 2010, has been organizing the cultural meet which is indeed a joyful cultural extravaganza for children belonging to different tribes and ethnic communities of the state. It envisages providing a golden opportunity for showcasing their innate potentials and artistic talents. Performance of traditional dances, folk songs and music, martial arts and short plays by the children hailing from different districts marked the Cultural Meet. The very inter-community mega cultural event envisions inculcating the young minds with a sense of peaceful co-existence, the spirit of communal harmony and the emotional integrity of the state.

The theme of this year is “Break the Silence, End Child Sexual abuse; Let’s Make a Child-Friendly Manipur”. 

MACR believes an individual’s commitment and extraordinary efforts made towards safeguarding child rights, amid all odds and challenges, whichever profession the person is working with, will impact a lot to bring far-reaching changes in the lives of the deprived children of the state. This year, four individuals working in the fields of juvenile justice, journalism, education, combating drugs and alcoholism, with extraordinary efforts and commitments have been nominated.  

Previous year awardees were also facilitated by the dignitaries of the function at the Auditorium Hall of Tribal Research Institute (TRI) Chingmeirong, Imphal West. 

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Imphal, Oct 5,

A body formed by locals of 16 polling booths in Khangabok Assembly Constituency – called 16 Polling Development Association has alleged misappropriation of NFSA rice by some agents by distributing it to the beneficiaries deducting at their will.

Talking to media persons at Khangabok Meisnam Leikai in Thoubal district,  convenor of the Association Khundongbam Dolen  said that there are 16 NFSA agents in Khangabok Assembly Constituency. Out of the 16 , 13 NFSA agents are distributing the NFSA rice to whomever they want forcing others to return back empty hand.

The District administration including Thoubal DC and DSO turned deaf ear to the complaint made by the locals, Dolen alleged.

He further added that details of the NFSA rice released for the beneficiaries have been obtained through RTI and as per the document, these 13 agents are misappropriating the people share, he alleged and urged authority to take immediate action. 

Dolen further said that the plea of the people of Khangabok area to change the 13 agents had been turn down by both the DC and the DSO and instead of changing the agents to the wishes of the people  and a notice circulated on October 3 put the name of the same persons whom the people have been complaining, as agents. 

“It is very unfortunate that the DC Thoubal fails to listen the demand of the people”, Dolen said. He added that the State government should keep an eye on the matter otherwise serious agitation will be launched.

The press meet was attended by members from the 16 Poling station. Co-Convenor, S.Brojen and Publicity Secy., M.Binoy were also present during the meeting with the media persons.  

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Imphal, Oct 5,

Governor, Dr.Najma Heptulla and Chief Minister, N.Biren Singh extended heartiest greeting and wished the people of Manipur on the occasion of Durga Puja festival.

In her message Dr. Najma Heptulla stated that people celebrate Durga Puja festival with gaiety and devotion and it contributes to the strengthening of universal brotherhood as people cutting across caste, creed and community comes out to embrace Goddess Durga.

Chief Minister N. Biren Singh while elaborating on the significance of celebrating the Durga Puja Festival wished the people to celebrate the festival to bring peace and prosperity in the state.

“May this festival provide an inspiration for us to follow the path of righteousness and reinforce the bond of brotherhood and amity among all sections of the society in the State for a more peaceful and prosperous Manipur” the Chief Minister said.

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Thoubal, Oct. 5

The Wildlife Crime Control Bureau (WCCB) Eastern Region Border Unit Moreh Manipur in collaboration with the Ministry of Environment Forest and Climate Change Govt. of India Conducted a one day sensitization Programme on Wildlife Crime and Role of PRI Members on Friday at Slopeland Public School, Khongjom in Thoubal District.

The programme was supported by Forest Department Govt. of Manipur and Wildlife and Biodiversity Conservation Committee (WBCC) Manipur was attended by Students and staffs of the Range Office Kakching and ThoubaI.

Joykumar Singh-IFS, DFO Thoubal L.Devla Devi Member of IVCN Dr Samungou, Member of IBCN R.K  Birjit Singh, Chairperson of PFA Ak. Prem Meitei, OC Khongjom Dilip Singh and Vice-President of Wildlife and Biodiversity Conservation Committee (WBCC) Manipur L.Bihari Singh attended as Chief Guest, President and Guest of honours respectively.

The members were made aware about the conservation and protection of Wildlife in and around their natural habitat.

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Saturday, 05 October 2019 18:04

World Animal Day 2019

By : N. Munal Meitei

Our father of nation, Mahatma Gandhi once told, “The greatness of a nation and its moral progress can be judged by the way its animals are treated.” The country celebrates Wildlife Week from 1-7th October every year. The World animal day is also celebrated on the 4th October. In our face, the eyes, nose, teeth and ear etc. have their respective shapes and functions. Likewise, without the animals the world would be really a miserable place. This day calls for increased attention to wildlife habitats, endangered species, the animal rights and their welfare and also the relationship between humankind and the animal kingdom. This day also make us remembrances and paying tribute to all animals and the people who love and respect them.
Let every day be World Animal Day, and for that let’s assumed ourselves to be the animal too. We can’t ignore that animals play an important role in our lives. They not only provide support and enrich our lives but also give companionship and make us better human beings. The best part of this day is everyone can celebrate it without the restrictions of nationality, creed, caste, religion, political belief or ideology.
No matter which country you belong and where you go in any corner of the planet, animals will consistently have a strong impact on the region’s culture. Every single culture in history contains animals in its folklore, traditions, costumes, mythology and art. The cave drawings of the oldest civilization to the modern fables, our affinity with animals is so ancient and pervasive that it is virtually universal. Many of us derive deep joy, companionship, and healing from the animals that share our homes. We also connect with animals by identifying with their perceived characteristics.
Researchers suggest that an affinity towards animals may be partially rooted in the similarities of emotional expressions that are shared across human and animal species. While studying the elephant’s character, it showed elephants mourning their dead, much like we human do. 
Affection of animals may differ from person to person but regardless of your feelings, humans have lived and worked closely with animals for centuries. From companion cats in ancient Egypt to messenger pigeons in the 19th century, the space warrior Laika to the bomb-detection military dogs today, we have long need of animals. We cared for animals because we have needed them for our survival.
But Jacque-Yves Cousteau, a French explorer once said, “We only protect what we love, we only love what we understand, and we only understand what we are taught.” But, though we are not taught, we now need to love and care for the animals.
As we humans do, the animals on earth have our similarities: that they all see, hear, touch, smell, eat, rest, play, mate, raise young, and die. Animals are our best of friends, they are loyal to us, love us and serve us and moreover, they can also defend and die for us. Mother Teresa told that, we should love animals because they give everything asking for nothing back, they are defenseless amid men’s harsh and calls, they don’t know hate or war, they don’t know about envy or grudges, forgiveness comes natural to them, they love with loyalty and truthfulness, they recognize and appreciate respect, they don’t buy love, they just expect it, they are our companions, eternal friends that never betray and also there are a thousand other reasons they deserve for our love and care. 
In our locality, sometimes, we have seen, dogs can better welcome us and they can show more love and affection than even our friends. When we go through a setback, our dogs will never laugh at and look down on us. They can share our pain and sorrow. They may do all kinds of funny tricks and even make a fool of themselves to console us, and make us laugh and become happy. I cannot imagine a world without animals.
They have every right to co-exist with us on this mother planet.
Thus, to our ethos and morality, we should also include how we live and treat with animals. Neither can we claim to have love in our heart if we have no love for animals. We can never be truly in touch with our soul if we do not realize that animals can suffer pain and sorrow like us.Hence, we should defend the animals when they are being treated with cruelty. When we save an animal and learn to live with them, we are not just keeping them alive but keeping an act of compassion, kindness and inspiration to our children and our children’s children. With this we can also leave behind a wonderful legacy of working towards a better environment. With this day, we must work hard to achieve the goals of peace, safety, and coexistence. We should not forget that by taking care of other animals we also take care of ourselves. Animal rights is an ideal in which all non-human animals are entitled to the possession of their own existence and that their most basic interests. Almost all religions around the world espouse some forms of animal rights. They maintain that animals should no longer be viewed as property or used as food, clothing, research subjects, entertainment, or beasts of burden. Cruelty to animals is the infliction by human suffering or harm upon any non-human. More narrowly, it can be the causing of harm or suffering, such as killing animals for food, for their fur or even their tusks. With approximately 65 billion animals killed annually for food. Killing of animals in religions procession should be stopped immediately. The Prevention of Cruelty to Animals Act was enacted in India in 1960 to prevent the infliction of unnecessary pain or suffering on animals. Now-a-days, we find rearing of animals of our country origin in the houses, hospitals and farms to exhibit them which is a punishable offence under the Law and such animals should immediately be handed over to the Forest department. The country also has the Wildlife Protection Acts, 1972 to deal with all sorts of wildlife crimes. But, whatever the law we may have, the most important is we need to realize and understand about animals and feel the love care for them. If it is so then we can proud that we are really participating on this World animal day. Let us not harm the animals today and before that, think twice for an earth without the animals.
The writer can be reached at This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.

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Saturday, 05 October 2019 18:03

Caution for the cocksure

In a state as ours steeped in symbolisms, it comes as no surprise to anybody when any developmental project or progressive step which started off with much aplomb and show of sincere intent ultimately comes out a cropper. Perhaps the public, having had to face the frustrating situation for far too long, have become inured to the unfortunate reality to a degree, and therefore the ability to be awed and shocked by the still rampantly prevailing irregularities and malpractices. Is it that the people have inadvertently got used to the system and have made peace with the unfortunate facts of the present government? Or is it that the general public have given up on the collective hope of any improvement on the part of the state government and instead chalked out the means to survive and prosper in their own ways? Or worse, still, have the people become attuned to the system and have become a part of it inspite of the apparent flaws instead of fighting and resisting its regressive influence on the society? While a definite answer is a distant possibility, the unfortunate fact remains that the state as a whole has been regressing backwards on all parameters despite the state government shouting itself hoarse to the contrary.
Corruption, coercion and commodification of any and every progressive aspect have become the norm rather than an exception. Selection of candidates for essential services has effectively become an auctioning exercise with the opportunity going to the highest bidders. The result- as everybody is experiencing- is inefficient, unqualified and inexperienced administration. While the voice condoning the manner of governing the state has been unanimous and loud, it remains to be seen when everybody stand up to corruption and coercion against the unscrupulous bureaucrats and officials. As long as the general public gives in to pressures and prefers the easy way out, corruption and coercion is bound to thrive.
Recent indications however present a ray of hope for an alternative and resurgent government in the form of the BJP revving up its efforts to shore up support from the public, and by the look of it, the party is doing a good job. There is however the danger of a newbie getting heady with power and deviating from the set objectives although those steering the party are old war horses who have been in the thick of politics long enough. It would be wise for the aspiring ministers and MLAs to observe and learn from the mistakes of the previous government and formulate means and ways to rectify them. Of late, a few political turncoats have started bad-mouthing the state government- a serious concern indicating that these turncoats are yet to forego the old habit and mentality of reactive and recriminatory politics. Their cocksure attitude has made many keen observers to sit up and take notice of the developments. The only way to proceed is to practice progressive politics and pragmatic governance. Transparency, inclusivity, expeditiousness and resoluteness should be the hallmarks of effective and enduring governance. Confusing the job for the person will bring everybody back to square one. Presidents, Prime Ministers, Chief Ministers and MLAs are descriptions of jobs that need to be performed and not privileges that should be abused. 

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By Rubani Yumkhaibam

Is the female beauty dangerous? How is the construct of the invisible female gaze that preys on the human males achieved? How does society imagine overarching female beauty?  These are a few questions that can be recovered from the existing perceptions of Haloi Taret, the seven beautiful nymphs of the Manipuri cultural imaginary.  Haloi Taret are a part of the belief system and the creation stories of the Meitei Cosmology. The narratives surrounding the mystery and magic of Haloi Taret represent them as a symbol of exquisite beauty, danger and insanity.
The essence of Haloi Taret narratives can briefly be summarised in the following manner:
Haloi Taret are the malignant yet exquisitely beautiful invisible spirits of the ether, they are also believed to be lurking on the face of the earth mostly at odd hours of the day and night. Haloi Taret do not kill humans; rather they make human “victims” lose their reason and logic. Individuals affected by an encounter with Haloi Taret cannot think or act coherently. Afflicted by a sickness akin to madness, the “victims” seem to have entered in a different world that is exclusive of the ones unaffected; they can be treated on the intervention of a traditional maiba/maibi who can engage in a dialogue with Haloi Taret through the intermediary of the sick person. The treatment is complete with the food offering made to Haloi Taret (Haloi Taret decide which food items and delicacies to be offered). Haloi Taret engages with both men and women; however, it is believed that they desire the male “victims” more than the female ones.
In New Folktales of Manipur (2016), James Oinam retells the story of one Haloi. A brief summary is provided here:  
Halois are the female divinities who married mortal men at a time when there was no spatial separation between the mortal and immortal realms of existence.  After all the immortals including the Halois had left the earth for the netherworld, one Haloi remained on the earth. The Haloi was extremely beautiful, and her beauty made the king forgot all the accusations labelled against her (the charge that she harmed the humans). Charmed by the Haloi’s extraordinary beauty, Purenba risked his life by marrying the Haloi, which unfortunately entailed a defiance of Sitapa Mapu’s decree that humans and Halois can no longer intermarry. The Haloi gave birth to Khamba and Khamnu. Following a trail of events, the Haloi left the earth for the netherworld, but not before predicting the hardship and the final victory of her children.  Purenba succumbed to a curse, the result of defying Sitapa Mapu’s decree, and was beheaded by Thonglen.  
In both Oinam’s narrative and the oral sources, Halois are associated with alluring beauty. Although the Haloi in Oinam’s narrative is shown in a sympathetic way (that she harmed no mortals), yet her marriage with Purenba was responsible for his death. Notwithstanding the dire consequences that would follow, Purenba decided to marry the beautiful Haloi. Ultimately it is her beauty that made him choose death and destruction.
It is believed that humans’ encounter with Haloi Taret entails from the Haloi Taret gaze. When an individual crosses path with such a gaze, the encounter happens. While such a gaze is perceived as a chance encounter, it is also believed that few individuals are more prone to Haloi Taret encounter, such as individuals with weaker aura. In this trajectory, both the particular individual as an object of Haloi Taret gaze and the resultant encounter are partly chosen and partly accidental. (In this sense, can we call the humans “victims”?) Once the gaze falls on the particular individual, she/he is afflicted by a sickness. Delirium, outbursts of dancing, singing, unintelligible talk, etc., are some of the marked sings of the sickness.
Although, both men and women can be affected, one of the most intriguing aspects of the encounter is the chosen male and the effects on him. The encounter with the male is the subject of this article. The extraordinary contact with the beautiful Haloi Taret acquires the character of seduction with the human male. The visible symptoms on the males, dance, songs, incoherent talk, etc., which we see as manifestations of lunacy, are the consequences of the intoxicating contact with which Haloi Taret charm, seduce and retain the male. It is required to note that in many visual depictions seven beautiful Haloi Taret engaging in bathing, swimming and relaxing are observed by a besotted male from a distance. However, it is not merely an exhibition of the captivating beauty that makes the seduction enduring, they also use magic and illusion to create the presence of food as a way of securing the human male. The male relishes the food in a state of joy and trance. The act of feeding the male increases the intensity of erotic play and bonding between the male and Haloi Taret. Thus, the interplay of food, beauty, and feeding/hunger is a strong factor in the process of manipulation and submission of the male.  
The power and manipulation by Haloi Taret is also manifested in the treatment of the ones affected. In the state of the perceived illness, the chosen male is considered as dwelling in a temporal state of insanity, a context that ensues an exclusive contact between Haloi Taret and the human. The spirit of the Haloi Taret never leaves the human until such time their demand is fulfilled (demand for food), which also points to the symbolic isolation of the chosen one from other humans in the surrounding. Haloi Taret can thus cut off the traffic between the humans and the everyday working world by transporting the former in the incoherent world of    d ream,  magic  and i llusion.  As long as the “ victim” stays within that transfixed world, Haloi Taret fully control  them.   The i ntriguing thing is throughout this exclusive contact, the chosen one (usually seen as sick) is not actually suffering, he  is  in ec stasy.                                                                                                                                 
Haloi Taret’s contact with humans is motivated by their need for food.  In the creation moments of the Meitei cosmology, while trying to create the human form, various spirits and creatures were created before humans were ultimately created. Haloi Taret were among those creations. Finally, a question arose – how would these creations survive? Sitapa Mapu determined that in the natural scheme of survival, the other creatures would survive on the food offerings made by the humans. Thus, the symptoms of sickness on the humans are a way of procuring food sustenance from the human world, an effective survival script. Once the food offering is made, the human whose consciousness hitherto exists at a different level of reality is released back into the ordinary reality. In this scheme of possession and release, the encounter and the consequent seeming dislocation are a medium of striking the balance Creation has ordained. In this ecological balance, the humans cannot be considered as victims.
Magical food, dreamlike sequences, inconceivable dimensions of reality are the tropes often employed in the cultural and literary imaginary about the deceit and seduction of the female beauty.  A good example of this construct is John Keats’ “La Belle Dame Sans Merci”, one of the characteristic poems of the Romantic Movement in Britain. In the poem, the mysterious and beautiful woman that the knight  encounters in a dreamlike atmosphere left him wandering in a state of madness, enslavement and hunger for the magical food. The poem’s preoccupation with ruins, isolation and exotic beauty finds deep echoes in our understanding of Haloi Taret - the secret art of manipulation and submission that makes a man a slave to the devastatingly beautiful women, and the intoxicating power of the shadowy food being fed to the male. The female gaze suffused in the wild untamed nature and the elements of the wind pose as a danger to the human male. Generally males have the privileges in society to wander free of restraints that women encounter. However, an encounter with Haloi Taret  leaves the man devoid of the geometry of reason and shame – he dances, he sings, he talks to himself. He becomes an isolated man, and in the civilized society that is oriented towards the male consciousness, an isolated man could be perceived as a madman.
So, is the female beauty dangerous? Exquisite female beauty is culturally perceived as a kind of overarching quality, a distraction to men. The understanding that female beauty stupefies  men has succeeded in constructing crimes of passion and sins, potent weapons that have kept the  female movement in control, thereby separating the good women from the bad ones. Thus, in popular culture, powerful women are constructed as manipulating their “feminine guile and sexuality” so as to bring doom and destruction to men. One of the greatest examples is the depiction of Cleopatra in the Hollywood, the veritable playboy of the Western World. Interestingly, Elizabeth Taylor, an actress who was portrayed as a sex symbol throughout her career made a very memorable Cleopatra among the movie goers. However, Cleopatra’s danger was not her looks (attribution of sensual beauty to Cleopatra is debated among the historians); it was her learning, knowledge and expertise on politics that the Romans must fear. She was the patron of the library at Alexandria, that library the Muslim, Christians and Romans rulers considered as a threat to their power. The Cleopatra we see in the popular imaginary is not always the real Cleopatra. We can also ask, have we seen the beauty of Haloi Taret?  A person who has not encountered Haloi Taret has not witnessed the beauty of Haloi Taret; we condition ourselves to believe that only  a captivating beauty can create such utter madness in men. Women are expected to be beautiful, at the same time a beautiful woman that wields power is considered dangerous. That is why a femme fatale that wields power, success and influence through her own charm, sexuality and mental wit are projected as dangerous and often made to meet a tragic end.
The narrative of Haloi Taret is an astute reversal of the male gaze. Males are not free from the lurking power and gaze of Haloi Taret. Women have been subjected to various coercive effects of the male gaze – rape, erasure of agency, punishment are a few instances.  However, the constructed “victimisation” against which the commentary has argued is not an erasure or a coercion of the chosen male. The rapturous daze and the interplay of submission  and merriment, evidenced in the dance and song of the chosen male, hint at the sense of participation and consent with which the gaze of  Haloi Taret engage the male. As mentioned before the encounter is the working of the Cosmological Balance, and thus Haloi Taret are also the guardians of the nature. Haloi Taret are preservation, not destruction.
Another important aspect of Haloi Taret is their kinship defined by friendship and sisterhood. The resultant female bonding is a resonant space where in they share food and sustenance. A strong note of egalitarian value bonds them. It is also their togetherness that instils fear in the humans. Haloi Taret continues to be the female force that is outside the sphere of the male power. The invisible gaze of Haloi Taret dispersed in the wind is symbolic of female force  that cannot be harnessed by the male hegemony. We can try to avert the gaze of Haloi Taret by wearing amulets and stones, but we cannot domesticate the gaze once it is befallen upon us.
Amidst their role in the contract of ecological balance, Haloi Taret are also a lonely figure that does not mingle with the belligerent and competitive human envaironment. Women who choose to live in solitude are looked upon as a threat to the functioning of the heteronormative rationality; they are asked – Why they are strong? Why they do not need men? Why they are self-sufficient? Mention may be made that the cultural stigma of spinster is stemmed from the self-sufficiency of the unmarried women. Whereas in the Middle Ages, spinsters were well-praised for their economic self-sufficiency; they chose love and marriage out of personal choices, not for financial security. The invisibility and aloneness of Haloi Taret are a statement against the socio-cultural compulsion on women to marry, to be a mother, to be a beloved, to sacrifice personal space, and so forth.  
Even in the new millennium women’s labour is continually exploited by family and society; unfortunately women’s participation in paid employment outside the domain of the home has often failed to liberate them from the regime of patriarchy, mostly in the name of “labour of love” and familial bonding. We need to rethink and redefine what freedom means for women. Haloi Taret give/gift us vital political lessons for reclaiming and owning our sexuality, resources, female bonding, and the need to care for ourselves. Ultimately, the danger of Haloi Taret lies in the female self-sufficiency, not merely the extraordinary beauty. They are an ambiguous figure of agency, threat and the object of male anxiety.  
I am very thankful to my friend, Santa Khurai, my lovely sisters Shiela and Rhea, and our teacher.

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