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Friday, 25 October 2019 - Imphal Times

Governor releases ‘Bhagyachandra And Bhakti Movement In Eastern Indian Literature’; recounts the life of Bhagyachandra

IT News

Imphal, Oct 25

Manipur Governor Dr. Najma Heptulla today released a book called “Bhagyachandra and Bhakti Movement in Eastern Indian Literature”.  The book is a collective endeavour of Dr. Aheibam Koireng Singh, Assistant Professor, Manipur University, Dr. H.  Shukhdeba Sharma, Department of Social Work, Indira Gandhi National Tribal University, Regional Campus, Manipur and Rami Niranjan Desai of India Foundation, New Delhi.

Speaking on the occasion, Dr. Heptulla said that Bhagyachandra, popularly known as Rajarshi was one of the most versatile rulers amongst the kings of Manipur in terms of the outstanding contributions he made for promotion of art and culture of the State and in serving the society and the ideal thoughts he had for the welfare of the future generations. 

“It is common knowledge that the rich cultural wealth of Manipur was born out of the imaginative mind and religious ingenuity of Maharaja Bhagyachandra by blending the native pre-Hindu religious element and cultural tradition with the great tradition of Hinduism leading to the birth of a state patronized peculiar and unique form of Hindu Vaisnavite cult of religion. It is the culture he had started that put Manipur on the global map. During his rule, a vibrant society prevailed and there was a cultural renaissance never seen before in the State. He documented and codified the Manipuri dance style, launching the golden era of its development and refinement. He composed three of the five types of Ras Lilas – the Maha Ras, the Basanta Ras and the Kunja Ras”, She said.

Rajarshi Bhagyachandra Maharaja was born in 1748.  During his reign, once he took shelter in Takhel, now called Assam in a war with Awa, the present day Myanmar, where he saw the image of Lord Shri Krishna in his dream in the most beautiful and resplendent dress.  The Lord was in his Natabar garb with a flute in his hand and a top knot or Chura of peacock feathers on his head.  The union or jugal murti of Lord Krishna and Srimati Radhika was seen in his vision.  The king also had a dream telling him to make idols from the jack fruit grown on the Kaina hills and worship it.  He followed the vision and made statues out of the jack fruit in the image of Lord Krishna.

In 1776, Rajarshi Bhagyachandra established the Govindaji temple and inaugurated the divine idol of Radha Krishna and began to worship the Lord with his consort in the Royal Palace. After this, the Rajarshi tried his dream of the Ras dance and taking the essence of the twenty ninth to the thirty third Chapters of Shrimad Bhagavata Darshan which are known as the Raspanchadhyaya, he trained many artists for the different kinds of Ras dance of Radha Krishna as well as Bhakti.  The Ras Lila of Radha Krishna was held accompanied with the most enthusiastic mood of the religious people of Manipur from the 11th day of Hiyangei (November), 1779 to the full moon day. From the religious point of view and from the artistic angle of vision, we can claim that the Manipuri Classical Dance, the Radha Krishna Ras Lila is one of the most modest, softest and mildest and at the same time, one of the most meaningful dances of the world.  Here lies the specific significance of the charm and beauty of the Manipuri Classical Dance, the Ras Lila of Radha Krishna in various episodes intertwined with the Bhakti movement.

The Governor further said that many books have been written on the multifaceted character of Maharaja Bhagyachandra, a king who was at once a courageous and skilled warrior, a deeply religious person and a great nationalist.  Eminent writers have thrown light on his character from different perspectives and yet many more books can be written on his remarkable exploits.  The present book is a compilation of the works of reputed scholars who are familiar and well versed with the central theme and subject matter.  The book has twelve chapters on the thoughts and works of Rajarshi Bhagyachandra all well researched and contributed by writers of considerable reach in the field.  They have touched upon the role of Rajarshi Bhagyachandra as a cultural protagonist and a crusader of Bhakti Movement in the State.  This book will be able to throw light on the pioneering role of this great king in the Bhakti Movement and a lasting source of inspiration to many. The collective effort by the eminent editors is really commendable and praiseworthy. 

Khemchand Singh, Speaker, Manipur Legislative Assembly, Dr. Ch. Chandramani Singh, Convener, Manipur Citizen Forum, Dr. Ng. Ngalengnam, Director, Indira Gandhi National Tribal University etc. also attended in the book releasing function.

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Rights body worries; appeals govt. to restrain military exercise in the wake of the Framework Agreement; seeks complete safeguard of civilians

IT News

Imphal, Oct 25

The spurt of harsh tone through media by both authority of the Government of India and the NSCN-IM over differences and inability to arrive a conducive agreement to both side in the wake of settling the decades old Naga issue and the unrest among the people of NE states particularly in Manipur due to apprehensions of negative fallout has worried many concern citizens including Human Rights Organization Youth’s Forum for Protection of Human Rights (YFPHR).

The YFPHR fears catastrophe ending as those who will be affected are the civilians who are the citizens of this country as the YFPHR is apprehensive of Indian authority utilizing military might to suppress any kind of oppositions from any ends. Similar wilderness is also possible that might sabotage the peaceful coexistence among the people of the reason if the NSCN-IM is provoked to take up extreme measures.

Unofficial report from a highly classified source said that the number of cadres present mainly at the NSCN-IM head quarter at Hebrone has been reduced, and a report by a news portal which stated that about 300 cadres have already left camp Hebrone. The report however did not disclosed about the shifting of any weapon from the camp Hebrone. Similarly, report about cadres of the NSCN-IM who had been at many undesignated camps in Ukhrul, Chandel, Senapati and Chandel districts had also been shifting. However, Imphal Times is yet to ascertain the authenticity of the report about NSCN-IM cadres leaving from their Hebrone camp.    

Following the development, the YFPHR had submitted memorandums to both Prime Minister of India and the Governor of Nagaland to restrain and to bear maximum tolerance in exercising military power – no matter on what could be the fall out of the October 31 final talk ( as announced ) so that the live of civilians are not affected.

In separate memorandum submitted by the YFPHR to both the  Prime Minister and the Governor of Nagaland , the YFPHR showed serious concern over the possible violence which may occur due to the recent development on the Peace Talk with the GOI and NSCN-IM.

“We Drew the attention of the PM and the Governor of Nagaland to initiate a safety measure and protection for the civilians particularly for the women and children in the region particularly in Manipur of the possible violence which may occur with regard to the recent development.

“We appealed the PM and Governor to keep in account of the safety of the civilians instead of exercising military suppression to the people” the YFPHR urged both.

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Absconded kingpin drug smuggler arrested

IT News

Thoubal, Oct 25

Support from the civil society bodies of Lilong has make Manipur police success in cleaning the anti social elements and fight against illicit drugs. ANJUMAN and ALADA, two major civil society organizations based in Lilong Thoubal district has been playing vital role in assisting the police force in saving the youths of the state from falling as a prey of the illicit drugs.

Today too members of the two civil bodies assisted a team from Lilong Police Station led by its Officer in Charge O. Ajit and arrested a kingpin drug peddler who had been absconding since the recovery of huge quantity of drugs from 3 peddlers on October 22. The three drug peddlers are presently detained in police custody and investigation has been carried out after registering a case against them. However, the kingpin has been absconding. A source from the police said that the kingpin absconder, identified as FM. Aktar Hussain (35) s/o (L) FM.  Habibur Rahaman of Lilong Haoreibi Mayai Leikai was arrested today along with the help of the civil organizations from his hideout at Kiyamgei Mamang Leikai at around 12.30 am today.

The hunt for the kingpin was reported to have been personally supervise by SP of Thoubal district Dr. S. Ibomcha .

On October 22, the police team seized 14,513 nos. of SP capsules, 99 illegal cough syrup bottles and 12 gms of Heroin no. 4 on October 22 following the arrest of 3 persons from Lilong area. 

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The End Can Open A New Map Out : Naga Framework Agreement

By - JN Lai,
Asst. Prof, International College,
University of Suwon,SKorea

In case NSCN-IM turns away from this cloudy Framework deal, perhaps it will be an opportunity for (North) Easterners. Likely Muivah will do so, since there is refusal by New Delhi to respect a separate flag and constitution for Nagas.
Going back a bit around the so called peace deal; too big is India to acknowledge fairly the torment of (North) Easterners. India has already got galore of haywire of its own in the mainland. The disability is too big to reset the legislative, executive and judiciary in places. Hence, realizing the mammoth limitations, it will be a rational move for Eastern region to initiate something to mitigate the reality bites from Delhi.
More importantly, structural violence, controversial merger, militarization, etc. have made the region feel discriminated. Again, this time by Hindu national party, BJP’s Citizenship Amendment Bill (CAB) and National Registration of Citizens (NRC)’s spill over from Assam is staring the peoples.  The situation causes sometimes, mixed contemplation about alternative towards a way-out; an attempt to reconnecting the dim dots to visualize a new different layout in the Eastern India political map.
 It looks very visible that Delhi has been waiting for some sort of natural death of the political armed movement to be happened sooner or later. However it is very unlikely that waiting games get fulfilled so wishfully, perhaps because of the patriotic retention among the indigenous bloods, and seen unseen forces of China and others. Even the form of resistance may migrate from armed struggle to democratic endeavor which will be rather legitimate.
 At the same time, armed groups may also be waiting for domestic crumbling of India on her own, in terms of splitting her territory into three or more, or political paralysis triggered by Hindu fundamentalism, colossal corruption, indigent governance, corporate games, etc.Political Armed Organizations (PAOs) might have well visualized India–how its might is, what it intends to, and certainly have experienced the amount of its commitment and quality in handling peace and justice.
 Likewise India dissects the weaknesses and strengths of the PAOs too. More or less Delhi is familiar with the psychology, what the organizations combating for, which organizations want what, how easy and difficult to handle with.
 Eventually to transform or resolve the existing conflict in the region is of the most desirable. Governments declare amnesty and provide unilateral cease fire could be one good job. So the armed groups are to come out to start a new non-violent and democratic movement.
The following can be a rough architecture towards a solution.
1. A unification of the (principal) Political Armed Oppositions of (North) Eastern India by investing all their resources, drives and sincerity towards giving birth to a new (Nation) State sharing negotiable configuration with the Republic of India.
2. The other NE states which have low intensity of armed conflict or absence of PAOs will also be invited to. Those have not joined at the inception may be considered in the aftermath. Thus, it will capacitate a desired inclusiveness of the communities of NE and even beyond. [Necessarily all the present seven/eight states may not be part of.]
3. The name of the new State may be called the United Peoples Land of Indo-Myanmar–UPLIM or New Sub-Himalayan Land–NESHLAND or Western Southeast Asia–WESEA.
4. In order to legislate for and govern the UPLIM/NESHLAND/WESEA, and to practice a good socialism, and to deliver fundamental rights of life, liberty, equality and dignity to the peoples of the new State, there will be a Parliament that may be called Peoples House–PH. [The structure and modus operandi of the PH may be considered and derived from the other parliamentary practices of the world.]
5. Currency may be retained with the Republic of India with validating the Euro and US dollar in the region; Communication, Defense, External Affairs, Natural Resources may be negotiated for a concurrent list; and the rest could be better in the realm of the PH affairs.
6. The key members or leaders of the PAOs, and from the other states where PAOs do not exist, political/social leaders will be member-representatives in the Parliament/PH [whom may be called People Representative–PR]
7. The modality of how and what number of PRs may be determined by considering various bases and will be settled democratically among PAOs in consultation with the NE communities/peoples by considering the optimum economic-political space of ethnic/indigenous minority. [Will Bodo, Karbi, Naga, Kuki, Meetei, etc., have one PR for each of them or will drop down to ancestral tribal communities and clans or will it based on the population ratio?]
8. The first five year tenure of the PRs may be reserved and compensated for the PAOs, afterwards PRs will be elected through universal franchise by their respective peoples/communities or otherwise.
9. The existing State Assemblies will remain, so do the participation of the MLAs in the UPLIM provincial governing activities in two houses setting. However it will be with the reformation of power division and functional sharing and in conjugation with PH structure. [It may minimize the outward dismay and eventual turbulent of the existing political personalities and parties.]
10. A wider candidature in the existing constituent assemblies election will be validated to accommodate the members and leaders of PAOs by migrating their organizations into electoral political parties or joining existing parties or floating new ones. Thus it may extend a meaningful participation to the governing activities for the new (Nation) State.

Restoring the picture of the similar regalia

The prolonged social tensions and manifestations of discontents have taken various shades and hues with the course of time. What is becoming more apparent with each passing day is not the clarity for the expressed demands, but for the implications of such agitations.
The increasing rigidity of the stances of the opposing parties has increased the necessity for an effective and speedy intervention. The state government however, having found itself caught in the middle as always, has started the process of implementing its tried and tested formula of dumping the whole issue with the centre, or at least making it seem like so. Meanwhile, the adamancy of the extremists in sticking to their ends of the issue has elevated the present imbroglio up another notch in complexity.  But for all the wise talks and fervent campaigns, the very fact remains that political boundaries and areas are never constant, and can be changed.
The history of Manipur is one which is made up of the myriad cultures and customs being practiced in various forms and regions. It would indeed be a great insult to our forefathers in whose name we are preparing to take up the cudgel, if we are to part ways for the sake of our different cultures and customs. But if ever things have to come to such a pass, the prospect of bidding loving farewell is a distant dream. For those who are hatching the plots, there is more to life than a few acres of land or a few thousands worth of freebies. Who knows, the rest of the world might even leave their countries with us for more prospective planets while we are still drawing and redrawing our claims.
Interestingly, ‘Matsyanyaya’ – an ancient concept of the Hindu politics is becoming relevant in today’s Manipur.  This was already put up by Imphal Times in this column.
‘Matsyanyaya’ in English language means ‘Law of the Fish’. It means the swallowing up of the smaller fish by larger fish.
If one takes a look in the present political trends of India the politics of Matsyanyaya seems to be a fair game.
The Right wing political parties are now using it as a tool to reach their goal of making the country – ‘a nation of one religion and one community’.
If a critic look from the other end of the tunnel, then definitely the idea itself is a gross violation to the rights of the indigenous community adopted by the International community.
If hard core Righties explain from their own perspective it is the only means to make the country a strong nation.
If one agree to the concept of the right wing political party leading the government in the country then it is a fair game.
A common idea with a common religion is perhaps the only means to sort out the differences among the people.
It was only at the time when India become a one nation, one religion that the country will be united and if united then the country will become one of the most powerful country in the world.
The dream of the right wing group to make India a one religion nation started way back in the early seventies.
What is more interesting is that the law of Fish is the tool for their success but with slight modification.
Well the purpose of this write up is to make aware the people on how important is ‘Unity’ for a group to reach their goal.
Since the beginning all groups under the right wing idealist group remain united till today.
The popularly known Sangh Parivaar is one of the most successful conglomerates of many organizations which still remain united.
In this state of Manipur, it is unfortunate that the erstwhile nation have never successful in the making of a common united forum – be it about the regional political parties, or be it the civil society organizations or be it the intellectuals who were groom up in different schools of thoughts, they had and is never united even though they all comes up for the same goal.
Even those rebel groups which are expected to be over 50 in numbers in the state of Manipur still do not have a common platform to struggle for the same cause.
In the valley major rebel groups fighting for the restoration of the freedom of the erstwhile nation have failed time and again to unite themselves.
The same is happening among the Legislatures of even the ruling political party.
A recent example is the differences among them which kept the running of the government to a stumbling block.
We the Metieis , the Tangkhuls, the Kukis and the Pangal were good in showing their essence of patriotism and commitment , however, we lack the sense of self respect to convert what we delivered into action for the good of the people.
When the members of the Right Wing groups sacrifices and remain united to fight for their cause, we the Manipuris cannot even sacrifice a little bit of our own self for the cause of the region.
It is a matter of shame that we the Manipuri even failed to unite even by becoming the members of the right wing group.
Imphal Times didn’t say this, but it is the recent political drama which had unfolded in public over the battle for power in the BJP led government in the state.
Let’s not forget American revolutionary hero John Dickinson’s war song of pre-Revolutionary “The Liberty Song”, that was first published in the Boston Gazette in July 1768.
Where Dickinson wrote: “Then join hand in hand, brave Americans all! By uniting we stand, by dividing we fall!”.

Transgression of suppressed sexuality: Liberating the consciousness of Indian women

By - Dr. Aniruddha Babar,

Woman, especially her sexuality, provides the object of endless commentary, description, supposition. But the result of all the telling only deepens the enigma and makes woman’s erotic force something that male storytelling can never quite explain or contain.

¯ Peter Brooks

The everlasting battle of devils of darkness with the angels of light has always been fought on the fronts of “morality”. The questions of good-bad, just-unjust, fair-unfair, right-wrong, moral-immoral have been centred around the sacred fire of certain dynamic truth. Those who held the societal moralities in high esteem, those who abide by the moral laws of the society often judged as noblemen and those who transgressed were severely condemned. The battle of devils and angels is an age old battle. In this battle on the battlefront of ethics, it is women who have been victimized for eternity. The devils, angels and their ignorant masculinity persistently challenged the sacred femininity. The philosophy of morality was an outcome of an insecure masculinity that on one hand written the Kamasutra and on the other Manusmriti.

The Story of Adam and Eve is very pertinent.  In Bible, The Book of Genesis tells us that Adam and Eve, the first man and a woman, contravened the command of God when they ate the forbidden fruit of the tree of the knowledge of good and evil. According to the Biblical record it was Eve who induced Adam to eat the fruit. It reveals the undercurrents of “sexism” in Bible. Obeying the command of God to not to eat a fruit was an act of morality, however, the moment forbidden fruit was eaten the evil and sin was brought into the world-hence the immorality was introduced. In this entire story, poor Eve was shown as a villain who by an alleged act of “transgression” gave birth to darkness. The roots of Anglo-Saxon-Victorian morality can be found in the Book of Genesis that convicted Eve of moral transgression.

The epidemic of the virus of ‘Male Paramountcy has spread all over the world since the dawn of human civilization. Women not only were condemned by the great ancient Indian civilization but also its contemporaries.The Hindu sage, Manu condemned woman to eternal bondage. The Greek, in their period of highest culture imprisoned their women within their houses and denied them all rights. The Spartans often destroyed women who could not give birth to healthy children. Even the most magnificent and civilized empire of Rome granted its women no legal rights. In Rome husbands had absolute control over their wives and treated them as slaves.Aristotle and Rousseau branded qualities like modesty, feminity, sensitivity and meekness as womanly and natural for the female sex. Plato did concede them an equal status in his Republic but that is stray example which should be further examined in the light of his shocking advocacy for the system of ‘communism of wives’ which shows his utter disregard and contempt for women that reduced the status of ‘wife’ merely to a public commodity.The socialist thinkers led by Karl Marx, Engels and others believed that women had been transformed from free and equal productive members of the society to subordinate wives and wards when humanity entered into an agrarian age which subsequently gave birth to the concepts, institutions of marriage and family which caused further degradation of status of a woman in society. No Civilization, No Culture, No Religion, No God had ever spare a women from the wrath of the politics of ‘Phallus of Patriarchy’ that gradually destroy the sanctity of the physical and emotional existence of women in society.

The concept of Moral Transgression is standing on a very slippery ground. Since time immemorial this very idea has been poorly understood by the ignorant, self-cantered, egoistic, sexist mind-set of society. History has taught us, that every civilization that has prospered on Earth attempted to subjugate women by glorifying their feminine nature and inherent strength as well as destructive powers for e.g. various female Deities in Indian religious culture. The contradiction is visible. On one hand women have been made the slaves of patriarchy and on the other, the same patriarchy; by granting them the status of deity elevated their religious status. What mystery, what contradiction is this? How has the sexual objectification of a woman transformed into a religious objectification? The answers to the question lie in an age old conspiracy that made women the sacred object of veneration by declaring them as living goddesses. The moment living human beings starts to be venerated as a God or Deity they ceased to exist as a human being, as a result, their whole existence gets devoid of the human rights they lawfully claims by virtue of being born as human. God has no rights, isn’t it? Declare woman a Goddess and deprive her of all her Human Rights, individuality and dignity. Glorification of compulsory suicide of woman after the death of her husband was done by declaring her Sati-Maata. The dark legacy of the ‘Sati’ tradition is still alive, adored and venerated in the form of various temples built in the memory of ‘Sati Mata’ scattered over different places in northern India. Sati tradition was the best example as to what extent the society could go to degrade the existence of woman. Another example can be given is of Temple Prostitution or Sacred Prostitution which is also known as Dev-Daasi tradition wherein women who were dedicated to the God by their parents were declared as married to the Deity of the temple and were required to submit and serve ‘MEN’ who would come to take blessings. The Dev-Dasi tradition was largely prevalent in southern part of India, however, presently the Dev-Dasis are rehabilitated by the efforts of government but the tradition is very much in function. The example of Yallamma Cult in state of Karnataka can be given; that still glorify the Dev-Dasi tradition. It has been seen that most of the women dedicated to the temple were of untouchable or lower castes who were not allowed to enter into the temple. The system that disallowed untouchables to enter the sanctum-sanctorum of the temple, appointed their women to serve the servants of the deities, where else in the world could we find the greatest example of hypocrisy and slavery?

The ideas of morality, the philosophy of chastity and purity are the result of gender conflict, masculine supremacy, sexual insecurity and fear. The morality can be defined as a set of principles that make distinction between right and wrong or good and bad behaviour. The aforesaid simple definition of morality is self-evident of its hollow character. In Indian society, male species has always had a dominant hand. The socio-cultural status of women was comparatively lower than their male counterparts (let us not cite the typical examples of Gargi And Maitreyee all the time). The masculine ignorance mistook delicate feminine body as a sign of weakness and feminine beauty and sexuality always considered as threatening, damaging and challenging to the ‘Tower of Power” of traditional male dominance. What is threatening should either have to be destroyed or brought under the absolute control. This is exactly what happened with women all over the world.

Therefore, in the interest of the existence of Indian civilization the efforts needs to be made to examine the gender conflict and the suppressive imposition of false moralities pertaining to sexuality upon women in socio-cultural premises of India. There is, undoubtedly, a link between gender conflict-superior female sexuality-insecure male masculinity- impositions of false morals to suppress female sexuality-transgression of sexuality and liberation of trapped consciousness. Therefore, fundamental inquiries into the field of morality, sexuality and human psycho-sexual behaviour needs to be made so that the traditional notions about the status of woman in Indian society could be challenged.

Man was born out of chaos and living in the chaos, and therefore it is unnatural to not to give justice to the basic human instincts of a man. I believe in a quote of William Shakespeare that says, “There is nothing good or bad, but thinking makes it so”. If we desire to demystify the fire of chaos in which we all have been burning since antiquity then the focal point of our inquiry and understanding should be female sexuality- a trapped sacred energy that since ages imprisoned in the dark chambers of moralities and ethics. In a world full of ignorance, and injustice the transgression by breaking the chains of laws, burning the mansions of injustice, hammering the ghettos of oppression, sometimes remains an only way towards the path of liberation.

There have been some voices of powerful men of honour raised from society against the historical oppression of women on the time scale of history. It was Raja Ram Mohan Roy from the then Bengal province in British India who condemned the brutal Sati tradition of Hindu society. The movement of Bramhosamaj started by Raja Ram Mohan Roy threw powerful challenge to the Brahmhinical social order of Hindu society. Another example is that of Mahatma Jyotirao Phule; who along with his wife Savitribai started first ever school for girls in India in Poona; changed the course of Indian society and further planted the seeds of ‘feminism’ in the nation. Phule was severely condemned by the society which was predominantly castist as well as sexists. The legacy of Mahatma Phule ably carried forward by Dr. B.R. Ambedkar who advocated absolutely equal rights for women in every sphere of life. He was the one who introduced Hindu Code Bill in parliament when he was the first Law Minister of newly independent India; however, unfortunately, the sexist members of the then parliament raised their voices against the Bill and condemned Dr. Ambedkar as if his draft of Hindu Code Bill had blasphemous elements that could destroy the Hindu Society which characteristically based on Caste and Gender inequality. The stand of Ambedkar was indeed revolutionary since for the first time in the history of Indian civilization a ‘Lawmaker’, a ‘Statesman’ was determined to give the right to ‘power’ to women which Indian society denied for the centuries. Along with Dr. Ambedkar there was one more voice which was fearlessly arguing for the rights, especially sexual rights of women, it was no other than Raghunath Dhondo Karve, one of the greatest social reformers and professor of Mathematics, who relentlessly fought for the rights of women but as a return had to face severe discontent of sexists society of the then Bombay. Karve started his professional career as a professor of mathematics at Wilson College in Mumbai. However, when he started publicly expressing his views about family planning, population control, and women’s right to experience sexual/sensual pleasure as much as men, the conservative Christian administrators of the college asked him to resign from the professorship. He then, along with his wife started first Birth Control clinic in Mumbai and also introduced Condoms for the first time in Indian society. When Karve and his wife started educating people, especially women about the use of contraceptives like Condom the fundamentalist, sexists people especially Brahmins of Mumbai started openly condemning him, accusing him of spreading dirt of sex in society. Those men had even gone down to such an extent of accusing him of encouraging and advocating ‘Free Sex among women’ in society, however, undoubtedly, Karve and his wife Malati staunchly advocated the right to sexual pleasure of women among others. It was Dr. Ambedkar who stood with Karve throughout his struggle as his friend and supporter who himself too propagated the idea of family planning, birth control and liberty in his discourses on women’s rights. These were the voices of people who gave utmost importance to the psycho-social-sexual-political liberation of women. Dr. Ambedkar said that, the growth of society should better be measured on the scale of growth of women in society. How true, and how apt! It was people like Roy, Phule, Ambedkar and Karve; released women who were chained in the invisible sanctum sanctorum of the “temple of unjust social order” that on one hand condemned and on the other venerated the women as goddess, as mother, as Shakti.

The hypocrisy and double standards of Indian society has been successfully killing the soul of women irrespective of their social status. The Freedom of sexuality and sexual expression is a natural right that has been consistently denied to women. Today; a woman can fly, can rule, can cast her influence in every sphere of life, but does she own her own body and feelings?  Does she have a right to sexual pleasure? Is she empowered enough to make sexual choice? Can she give justice to her sexuality without being made a victim of politics of guilt and target of judgmental society? Does she have right to challenge dominance of male sexuality which causes ‘Bedroom Politics of Power’? It is important to understand that the female sexuality has been ruled and governed by male chauvinism against which women from time to time tried to revolt and therefore, to subvert the patriarchal norm a free discourse as to the oppressed and oppressor, positive shades of women’s sexuality, desires, self-pleasure, safer- pleasurable sex, sexual exploration and positive communication on affirmative sexuality has to be initiated. The ‘recognition’ and ‘acceptance’ of woman as a human can change the dynamics of society. Relationship between man and a woman should not reduce merely to the covenant of power, but must remain as a bond of freedom, liberation, understanding and love.

 

**** The writer, Prof. Aniruddha Babar is a PhD, MA (IGNOU), LLB (GLC, Bombay), LLM (University of Pune) and is presently the Asst. Professor of Political Science Dept. Of Political Science Tetso College, Dimapur, Nagaland. Earlier he was an Advocate  at The Bombay High Court OS/AS. He can be reached at Mobile: 08692925420 or WhatsApp: 09462996985 

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