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Wednesday, 18 March 2020 - Imphal Times

Circular Economy(CE) for sustainability

Over the last 150 years, our industrial economy has been dominated by a one-way model of production and consumption in which goods are manufactured from raw materials, sold, used and then incinerated or discarded as waste. In the face of a rising global population and the associated growing resource consumption and negative environmental impacts, it becomes increasingly apparent that business as usual is not an option for a sustainable future. While the concept of a circular economy has been discussed since the 1970s, switching from the current linear model of economy to a circular one has recently attracted increased attention from major global companies and policymakers. As a result of growing interest in the business opportunities created by a Circular Economy (CE), its practical applications to modern economic system and industrial processes have recently gained momentum among companies and governments. In that regard, understanding the concept of CE is a key prerequisite for a successful implementation within a business. As the concept of CE has been evolving since 1970s building on different schools of thought, its description and principles have been stressed from the different points of view in the academic and grey literature. Therefore, it is crucial to get a common understanding of what a circular economy entails.
 Then, what is a Circular Economy? A circular Economy (often referred to simply as circularity) is an economic system aimed at eliminating waste and continual use of resources. Circular system employ reuse, sharing, repair, refurbishment, remanufacturing and recycling to create a close loop system, minimizing the use of resource inputs and creation of waste, pollution and carbon emission. The circular economy aims to keep products, equipment’s and infrastructures in use for longer, thus improving the productivity of these resources. All waste should become “food” for another process: either a by-product or recovered resource for another industrial process or as regenerative resources for nature e.g compost. The regenerative approach is in contrast to the traditional linear economy which has a take-make-dispose model of production. Proponents of the circular economy suggest that a sustainable world does not mean a drop in the quality of life for consumers and can be achieved without loss of revenue or extra costs for manufactures. The argument is that circular business model can be as profitable as linear models, allowing us to keep enjoying similar products and services.
    Manufacture, use and disposal? No, reduce, reuse and recycle. The current paradigm of linear economic model could be coming to an end and its place will be taken by the circular economy. The current model of production and management of resources, goods and services that seeks to promote short term consumption is leading the planet to an unsustainable situation. The nowadays economic system is the opposite of the life cycle of nature and collides with the sustainable development, focussed on the long term. In nature there is no waste or landfill: all elements play a role continuously and are reused in different stages. Taking as an example the cyclical nature pattern, circular economy is presented as a system of resources utilization where reduction , reuse and recycling of elements  prevails: minimize production to a bare minimum and when it’s necessary to use the product, go for the reuse of the elements that cannot return to the environment. That is, the circular economy promotes the use of as many as biodegradable materials as possible in the manufacture of products- biological nutrients—so that they can get back to nature without causing environmental damage at the end of their useful life. When it is not possible to use eco-friendly materials- technical nutrients: electronics, hardware, batteries etc, the aim is to facilitate a simple uncoupling to give them a new life by reintroducing them into the production cycle and compose a new piece. When this is not possible, it will be recycled in a respectful way with the environment. Unlike other economic model where the economic aspect prevails over the social or environmental, circular economy is substantial improvement common to both business and consumers. Companies that have implemented this system are proving that reusing resources is much more cost effective than creating them from scratch. As a result production prices are reduced so that the sale price is also lowered, thereby benefiting the consumer not only economically but also in social and environmental aspect. Intuitively, the circular economy would appear to be more sustainable than the current linear economic system. Reducing the resources used and the waste and the leakage created, conserves resources and helps to reduce environmental pollution. The circular economy can cover a broad scope like industrial applications with both product- oriented and services, practice and policies to better understand the limitations that the CE currently faces , strategic management for details of the CE and different outcomes such as potential re-use application and waste management.
     The CE includes products, infrastructures, equipment and services and applies to every industry sector. It includes technical, resources (metals, minerals, fossil resources) and biological resources (food, fibres, timber etc.). A circular economy within the textiles industry refers to the practice of cloths and fibres continually being recycled to re-enter the economy as much as possible rather than ending up as waste. The construction sector is one of the World’s largest waste generators. The CE appears as a helpful solution to diminish the environmental impact of the construction industry. The CE is beginning to catch on inside the automotive industry. It is stated that CE could redefine competitiveness in the automotive sector in terms of price, quality and convenience and could double revenue by 2030 and lower the cost base by up to 14%. So far it has typically translated itself into using parts made from recycled materials, remanufacturing of car parts and looking at the design of new cars. Not only these CE started looking towards in all possible sectors. Rethinking growth for longer prosperity shows that a CE path to development could bring India’s annual benefits of Rs .40 lakhs corer in 2050 compared with the current development path- a benefit equivalent to 30% of India’s current GDP. Now the whole world has set their eyes toward CE for sustainable development and better environment for the emerging world. But can Manipur join this rest in the near future to come? It’s doubtful because the idea of Circular Economy is still yet to reach among our common mass, policymakers, public/ political leaders as they all are concentrating their mind to rich quick through get free idea and contract works where easy money can be made through akash bill forgetting about the unbearable scenes of corruption, favouritism, nepotism,poverty,social-unrest,law&order crisis,deadlocks in education & problems pouring on our environment. Now, it is the time to give mass awareness about Circular Economy to our common masses for a better future.

Nagas entering the final phase of power struggle

By : Pakinrichapbo

Since the beginning of the Naga Movement, power struggle among the nationalist groups dominated and contributed to wretched living conditions for the people along the way. The power struggle continues to this very day and it seems the Nationalist groups have now entered the last phase of power struggle. One perturbing factor is that as usual, the civilian populations would play along by choosing sides among the numerous armed nationalist groups.
Throughout the various stages of this power struggle among the nationalist groups, some state politicians from the past and present had played a vital role and some continues to play along. The outcome of this power struggle will show what role they have played: Whether in building or in destroying the fabric of the Naga society.
This article attempts to present a brief summary of this power struggle, its main issues involved touching on the outcome of the past power struggles and the possible outcome. We can broadly categorize three phase of the power struggle.
First phase of the power struggle (1946-1963)
In the early period of the Naga National Council (NNC), the power struggle centered on the contention between the extremist groups and the moderates groups within the NNC on the issue of autonomy or on its nature of relation with Indian Union and creation of fully independent Naga Nation. The outcome of the first phase of power struggle created irreconcilable differences between the extremists and the moderates, forcing the moderates to work for the creation of the Nagaland Statehood, and the rejection of the Nagaland statehood by the nationalist in the extremist camp (For further reading, page 150, “Nagas Imbroglio” by Charles Chasie).
Second phase of the power struggle (1975-1997)
The second phase of the power struggle centered on the issue of the 1975 Shillong Accord, where the said accord bitterly divided the nationalists’ camp into supporters of the Accord and the nationalist groups who condemn it. The consequence unleashed post-signing of the accord led to the formation of the National Socialist Council of Nagaland (NSCN) in 1980 that later split into two rival factions namely the NSCN-IM and NSCN-K in 1988. According to the source of one renowned Indian Journalist, one of the main reason behind the split was the differences among the top leaders of NSCN on the issue of starting peace talk with the Government of India whereas International Swedish Journalist Birtil Lintner in his book “Land of Jade: A journey from India through Northern Burma to China” and in his article titled Nagaland: The Forgotten Frontier, published in  The Irrawady Magazine, November 2014 edition says evil of tribal rivalry and the Nagas from Myanmar simply tired of being treated as  serfs by their Indian cousins, drove them out of the area. Post-NSCN split, violent factional clashes became a daily routine for nearly three decades where NSCN-IM emerged to be the largest and most powerful groups among the different armed factions. Quoting from the essay titled, Nagaland: descent into chaos, (The Hindu, dated 23.01.2014) authored by Shri. R. N. Ravi, Retired Special Director, Intelligence Bureau, former Interlocutor and Incumbent Governor of Nagaland, “over 1,800 Nagas have been killed in some 3000 fratricidal clashes since the beginning of the ceasefire (1997-2013). Contrast it with the violence during the 17 years preceding the ceasefire (1980-96) that took a toll of some 940 Naga lives in 1,125 clashes mostly with the security forces”
Final phase of the power struggle1997-2020
Apart from the violent factional clashes, some of the remarkable developments that took place between 1997-2020 were the formation of new factions (in addition to existing ones)  , the signing of 3rd August 2015 Framework Agreement between NSCN IM and GOI; the sudden unification of six Naga armed factions christening under the umbrella term ‘Naga National Political Groups’ (NNPG) in 2016, at present total number rose to seven factions after the latest entry of NSCN K (Khango Group); the signing of ‘Agreed Position’ between GOI and NNPGs on 17th November 2017; the emergence of Nagaland Tribal Council (NTC) as a leading public organization also the brain behind the formation of  NNPGs; the tactical sidelining of Naga Hoho, Naga Student Federation (NSF), and the Naga Mother Association (NMA), which was indeed a master stroke by the former interlocutor during his routine consultation with tribal bodies and civil societies there by reducing the influence of the said organizations in Nagaland.
On the other hand, the loss of status of the age-old organizations seem to be a boon for the NTC, as all Nagaland based tribal bodies appears to back the NTC on paper (as a test of their loyalty is yet to be proven). Furthermore, the unsettled age-old differences between Zeliangrong organizations and Naga Nationalists group starting with NNC continues, as evident by the skirmish between the NSCN-IM and Zeliangrong United Front (ZUF). Such domestic developments have pushed the Naga nationalists groups in to the final phase of power struggle under the banner of the NSCN-IM bloc and NNPGs bloc. We can only wait and watch when the final showdown will take place before or after the GOI and NNPGs decides to go ahead with implementation of the final agreement as the Nagas are still alien to the concept of peaceful disagreements. In such suspense, one needs to reflect on the phrase “It is now sign or lose it all. Peace or war” which is the ending lines in Sudeep Chakravarti’s essay “When push for Naga peace deal turn to shove” (LiveMint dated 12.03.2020).

Work Harder to Achieve More in Scheme Implementation: Biswajit

IT News
Imphal, March 18

Rural Development and Panchayati Raj Minister Thongam Biswajit Singh today chaired a review meeting of schemes implemented by the department including the Mahatma Gandhi National Rural Employment Guarantee Scheme and the Pradhan Mantri Awas Yojana-Gramin.

Biswajit encouraged the officers and officials of the department and district administrations to put in more effort to bring more achievement and development in the rural areas. He added that the government will also highlight the achievements of the district by awarding the best district in implementation of schemes.

Highlighting that the department will be receiving funds from the Centre soon, the Minister instructed the officials to fully utilise all unspent funds available under them by Monday so that proper Utilisation Certificates can be submitted to the Centre.

Regarding implementation of MGNREGS in the State, the Minister advised the officials to ensure 45 man-day minimum out of the 52 man-day allocated this year so that the department can target a 100 man-day next year.

At the same time, the Minister also instructed officials concerned with implementation of the PMAY-G to spread awareness regarding selection of Non-Socio Economic Caste Census 2011 beneficiaries and to highlight the same by erecting hoardings and roadside banners both in English and Manipuri.

Meanwhile, during the review meeting, the DCs highlighted various issues faced in their respective districts during implementation of government schemes. One of issues highlighted include issues in geo-tagging of scheme implementation in the interior parts of the hill districts.

The meeting was attended by Additional Chief Secretary MH Khan, Deputy Commissioners of different districts and officials of the department.

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