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Items filtered by date: Tuesday, 09 October 2018 - Imphal Times - A Daily Eveninger

69th Territorial Army Day observed  Territorial army act as interface between people and security forces: CM

DIPR
Imphal, Oct 9,

Chief Minister N. Biren Singh said that the Territorial Army has been acting as an interface between the local populace and the Army and Assam Rifles Unit with distinction. This was stated by him at the Observance of 69th Territorial Army Day held at Banquet Hall of 1st Manipur Rifles Battalion, Imphal. The function was organised by Government of Manipur.

Speaking as Chief Guest of the function, Chief Minister said that the Territorial Army has unfailingly risen to the every challenge for the security of the Nation and for the welfare of its citizens. The Territorial Army Unit stationed in Manipur is making an immense contribution in helping them to understand the peculiarities of the State and carry out their operational task with human touch. With the activities of the Territorial Army, security forces have gained tremendous goodwill of the local population, he added.
On the occasion, Chief Minister appreciated the sincere efforts and invaluable contribution of the Territorial Army towards peace and prosperity of the Nation.
While delivering his Presidential address, Minister for CAF&PD Karam Shyam lauded the Territorial Army for their sincere efforts towards building good relationship with the local people. The Army, Assam Rifles and other security force units presently stationed in the State are indulging in various community service and other civic activities.
Minister for Education Th. Radheshyam, Minister for TA&Hills N. Kayasii, Chairman MANIDCO Dr. Y. Radheshyam, MLAs S. Bira Singh, L. Susindro, Chief Secretary, DGP, GOC, 57 Mountain Division, Major General VK Mishra, IGAR (South) Major General KP Singh, top civil and police officers, officers and families of 165 Infantry Battalion (Territorial Army) attended the function.

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United Nations shows serious concern of the cancellation of FCRA of Manipur’s NGOs

IT News
Imphal, Oct 9,

United Nations High Commissioner for Human Rights (UNHCHR) in its annual report has showed its serious concern over the cancellation of the Foreign Contribution Regulation Act (FCRA) of the non-governmental organizations in India who seek to cooperate with the United Nations.
The Annual report of the United Nations High Commissioner  for Human Rights and reports of the Office of the High Commissioner and the Secretary-General is produced here below:
“On 9 November 2017 two special procedures mandate holders expressed concern at the use of the Foreign Contribution Regulation Act of 2010 to restrict the work of non-governmental organizations who seek to cooperate with the United Nations, for example, by refusing to renew or grant licenses.

“They drew attention to the revocation of the license of the Centre for Promotion of Social Concern (also known as People’s Watch) under the Foreign Contribution Regulation Act, which was also addressed by three special procedures mandate holders on 31 May 2018 (IND 14/2018). On 29 October 2016 the Ministry of Home Affairs reportedly refused to renew the organization’s license to receive foreign funding under Article 6 of the FCRA and CPSC’s bank accounts were frozen. The refusal was subsequently upheld by the High Court of New Delhi in January 2017. The case is still pending before the court following a April 2018 hearing, and has been adjourned to 31 August 2018.
“The Executive Director of the Centre for Promotion of Social Concern, Mr. Henri Tiphagne was accused of using foreign contributions in his international advocacy “to the detriment of India’s image,” including in his engagement with United Nations special rapporteurs to whom he submitted information “portraying India’s human rights record in negative light.” Mr. Tiphagne has also made recommendations to the universal periodic review. The special procedures mandate holders noted that the non-renewal of CPSC’s license is a clear case of reprisal for his cooperation with the United Nations .
“Additionally, on 1 January 2018, it was reported that the Centre for Social Development, which promotes the land and resource rights of indigenous peoples in Manipur, received a six months suspension. According to reports, the suspension was based on claims that the Centre for Social Development violated the Foreign Contribution Regulation Act by using foreign funding for purposes other than intended by the law, including drawing attention to Uranium mining in Meghalaya at “several global platforms.”
The Centre for Social Development submitted a report in October 2017 to the United Nations Working Group on Business and Human Rights and to the Committee on the Elimination of Racial Discrimination which included inquiries related to uranium mining and cement factories in Meghalaya. According to the Centre for Social Development, it has submitted nine reports to the United Nations since 2006 concerning violations of the rights of indigenous peoples in northeast India in relation to large-scale development projects, mining operations, and implementation of the Armed Forces (Special Powers) Act. They have requested the Committee’s action under its early warning procedure.
“It is alleged that the Centre for Social Development has been targeted by Indian authorities since August 2017, when surveillance of its premises and staff’s movements began. The offices of the organization were reportedly visited by the Central Reserve Policy Force and others to question the staff about their work, and staff have been harassed. One staff member was physically attacked on 18 August 2017. In November 2017, one staff member and two volunteers of the organization were called in for questioning by the police.
“The Secretary of the Centre for Social Development, Mr. Nobokishore Urikhimbam, has been surveyed by military intelligence officials from the State of Manipur as well as those outside of the state at his office premises and at his home in Imphal, Manipur. When he travelled to Shillong, State of Meghalaya in January 2018, the Intelligence Department of Meghalaya contacted the hotel and interrogated its staff about his actions and contacts. The hotel staff was asked to provide detailed information on his activities, including a list of the people he interacted with. These incidents were reportedly brought to the attention of the Superintendent of Police, Imphal East District and Patsoi Policy Station, Imphal West District, to no avail.”

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PREPAK (PRO) observes 42nd Red Army Raising Day

IT News
Imphal, Oct 9,
A statement of the proscribed group PREPAK – PRO said that the outfit observe its 42nd Raising Day of its Red Army  at its Central Head Quarter, General Head Quarter, Mobile Units, Check Points and base areas today.
The statement said that main observance was held with the message of the Chairman.
The statement further stated that the Chairman in his speech  recalled the courage of the party leaders who had sacrifice for the cause of the freedom of the state. Yesterday in a message the chairman of the outfit has blamed India for the present conflict.

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Manipur youth to cycle 1,420 km to encourage cancer patients

From a Correspondent

Imphal, Oct 9,

 

A 20-year-old student from Manipur Ji Ingocha Chingtham who started his solo cycling adventure from Navi Mumbai to New Delhi on Sunday to encourage cancer patients and also to spread the message to stay fit, reached Surat in Gujarat this morning, reports reaching here said.

His cycle ride was formally flagged off by the key functionaries of the Manipuri body based in Mumbai along with some cancer patients from Kharghar in Navi Mumbai.

Ji Ingocha Chingtham, a resident of Khongjom Sapam Mayai Leikai in Manipur’s Thoubal district aims to complete this cycling trip of 1429 kms within five days in order to enter into the Indian record books.

He said that he was inspired by the latest slogan “Hum fit ho toh Indian fit”(If we are fit then the entire India is fit).

That’s why he decided to take off on this road journey on a cycle to cover 1420 kms, according to reports reaching here. Ingocha hopes to reach India Gate in Delhi on October 11 by riding his cycle in an average of 300km per day.

“I’m also dedicating my cycle ride for the cancer patients so as to encourage them to fight the disease”, Ingocha said while interacting with few Manipuris who are currently staying in Mumbai which has became a new destination for cancer treatment.

In April 2018, this Manipur lad had also cycle 3100 kms from Imphal to New Delhi in 23 days to spread the message of “Beti Bachao Beti Padhao” (Save our girls, educate the girls child) throughout his cycle trip. He had stopped in various towns, villages and cities to interact with people especially with the school students to tell them that the vital important of learning and education.

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MCPM withdraws stand on MSPCL

IT News
Imphal, Oct 9,
Armed rebel group Maoist Communist Party Manipur today said that it has withdrawn its stand on the matter of the Manipur State Power Company Limited (MSPCL) after it has learnt the party has been misinformed regarding the appointment of the present Managing Director.
In a press statement, the rebel group stated that some vested interested people are misleading people with false information to malign the image of the MSPCL. The Maoist said that they appreciate the hard work of the department to make sure that people get regular supply of electricity. After receiving complaint about rampant corruption in the department the outfit had investigated about the matter from both sides, the statement said and added that the post of the Managing Director has been recruited in proper manner and that no irregularity has been found.
It said that the proper norms and regulation has been followed to the appointment of the Managing Director as done in other state of India. Proper advertisement to fill the post of the Managing director has been published in two National dailies – the Indian Express on January 13 and January 14 of 2018. The same has also been published in local dailies as well as in the web site of the state government. Applicants from outside the state and also from inside the state were screen by a special select committee chaired by the then Chief Secretary of Manipur RR Rashmi, Additional Chief Secretary Dr. Suhel Akhtar and Additional Chief Secretary Shambhu as members. After the investigation no clue about charges of corruption in the MSPCL has been found and does the stand against the department has been withdrawn. The outfit said that as long as the department continue its good work the Maoist will keep its word.

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Beyond the reality


The one simple thing that could make much of almost everything much easier and smoother, yet seemingly impossible to accomplish is the act of coming clean. It would indeed take a much greater strength of character to own up our mistakes and short comings, and still greater willpower to refrain from deliberately committing acts we consciously know is wrong and false.
The few fortunate ones who have the grit and will to transcend these urges are acknowledged and respected. On the other hand, a new breed of “Go-Getters” who would not stop at anything to achieve their goal is on the rise the pressures of present day society helping in developing and pruning such mindset to perfection. They are the restless, hyperactive and aggressive ones who do not cater to emotions and aesthetics.
Modern parents and guardians are increasingly urging their wards to adopt the letter approach towards life in order to carve out a place in the society that invariably results in a level of respect-respect that again is dependent on the earning capacity, the social circle adopted and living status maintained. Increasing compulsions for security in terms of food, shelter and a step towards a more secure future could be the factors that prompted the collective thinking towards adopting such an attitude towards life.
But then, does that mean the adage “All is fair and love and war” will be made true? Is our life becoming a daily struggle, a battle-if not a war, we are destined to wage every single living day of our lives? Where does that leave us with any room or opportunity for improvement not the financial kind, but a more rounded and holistic, as a person?
The present developments in the society-particularly that of mindless atrocities and lack of considerations that is becoming rampant would be a spill-off of this new approach towards life.
The struggle for security-for the basic necessities of life has become the all-consuming tryst for wealth which invariably leads to the thirst for power and influence. Greed takes over everything else, making our lives worse off than when we started. What then could be the panacea for these aberrations that has come to plague our lives of late?
The answer lays within us common knowledge which just needs to be acknowledged, and more importantly to act on. Putting up a façade of make-believe and a show of benevolence and righteousness will not absolve anyone of the crimes and wrongs.
This is of utmost importance for everyone, and more so for those who are donning the role of public representatives who we are following. Concepts like beauty, peace and harmony can only be experienced if we can rise above our petty urges and look at life-that of ourselves and the ones around us in a different and totally new perspective one that does not have anything to do with wealth, power or fame.
“The earth has enough to satisfy man’s needs but not man’s greed”. Mohandaskaramchand Gandhi.

Buddhism is free from compulsion and coercion and does not demand of the follower blind faith

By Thangjam Sanjoo Singh

The Buddha appeared at a time when autocracy was prevalent in India. But his teaching was somewhat of a threat to such autocratic government. He did not, however, interfere with the politics and the government of the country; for he was never a meddler in things were interference was useless, but that did not deter him from giving voice to his democratic thoughts and views. The Buddha’s teaching definitely encourages democratic ideas and institutions. Though the Buddha wisely refrained from interfering with the then existing governments, he made the sangha, the community of the monks, an absolutely democratic institution.
As the Marquess of Zetland, a former Viceroy of India said:
‘ It is probable that the tendency towards self-government evidenced by these various forms of corporate activity received fresh impetus from the Buddhist rejection of the authority of the priesthood and further by its doctrine of equality as exemplified by its repudiation of caste. It is indeed to the Buddhist books that we have to turn for an account of the manner in which the affairs of these early examples of representative self-government institutions were conducted. And it may come as surprise to many to learn that in the assemblies of Buddhists in India two thousand years and more ago are to be found the rudiments of our own parliamentary practice of the present day. The dignity of the assembly was preserved by the appointment of a special officer – the embryo of “Mr. Speaker” in our House of Commons. A second officer was appointed to see that when necessary a quorum was secured – the prototype of the Parliament Chief Wip, in our own system. A member initiating business did so in the form of a motion which was then open to discussion. In some cases, this was done once only, in others three times, thus anticipating the practice of Parliament in requiring that a Bill be read a third time before it becomes law. If discussion disclosed a difference of opinion the matter was decided by the vote of the majority, the voting being the ballot.’
Characteristic, again, is the Buddha’s method of teaching the Dhamma. The Buddha disapproved of those professed to have ‘secret doctrines’ saying: ‘I have taught the Dhamma, Ananda, without making any distinction between exoteric and esoteric doctrine, for in respect of the Truth, Ananda, the Tathagata has no such things as the “ closed fist” of a teacher, who hides some essential knowledge from the pupil. He declared the Dhamma freely and equally to all. He kept nothing back and never wished freely to extract from his disciples blind and submissive faith in him and his teaching. He insisted on discriminative examination and intelligent inquiry.
Buddhism is free from compulsion and coercion and does not demand of the follower blind faith. At the very outset the sceptic will be pleased to hear of its call for investigation.  Buddhism, from beginning to end, is open to all those who have eyes to see and mind to understand.
The Buddha never interfered with another man’s freedom of thought; for freedom of thought is the birthright of every individual. It is wrong to force someone out of the way of life which accords with its outlook and character, spiritual inclination and tendencies. Compulsion is every form is bad. It is coercion of the blackest kind to make a man swallow beliefs for which he has no relish; such forced feeding cannot be good for anybody, anywhere.
The Buddha’s sole intention was to make clear that seeing things as they are is not the result of mere belief in, and fear of, some external power, either human, superhuman or even infra-human. In the understanding of things, belief and fear do not play any role in Buddhist thought. The truth of Dhamma can be grasped only through insight, never through blind faith, or through fear of some known or unknown being. The history of religion reveals that it is fear in man, enmeshed in ignorance, which creates the idea of an omnipotent external agency; and once that idea is created, men move in awe of the child of their own fear and untold harm to themselves, and, at times, to others, too.
Instructing the monks, the Buddha says: ‘Those who have mere faith in me, mere affection in me, they are bound for a good state of existence (but they do not attain the highest, arahatta, final emancipation). Those who are stiving for Dhamma, who are bent on the path, they are bent on the path, they are bound for awakening, for arahatta.
These are clear indication that the Buddha did not want his followers to recognize anything indiscriminately and without reason. Not only did the Buddha discourage blind belief, and fear of the omnipotent as unsuitable approachh es for understanding the truth, but he also denounced adherence to unprofitable rites and rituals because the mere abandoning of outward things, such as fasting, bathing in rivers, animal sacrifice and similar acts, do not tend to purify a man or woman, do not make a man/woman holy and noble.
We find this dialogue between the Buddha and the Brahmin Sundarika Bharadvaja. Once the Buddha addressing the monks explained in detail how a seeker after deliverance should train himself and further added that a man whose mind is free from taints, whose life of purity is perfected, and the task done, could be called one who bathes inwardly.
Then the Brahmin Sundarika Bharadvaja seated near the Buddha heard these words and asked him:
-    Does the Venerable Gautama go to the bathe in the river Bahuka?
-    Brahmin,what good is the river Bahuka?
-    Indeed, Venerable Gautama, the river Bahuka is believed by many to be holy. Many people have their evil deeds (papa) washed away in the river Bahuka.
Then the Buddha made him understand that bathing in rivers would not cleanse a man of his dirt of evil and instructed him thus:
‘Bathe just here (in the Doctrine and Discipline – Dhamma-vinaya), Brahmin, give security to all beings. If you do not speak falsehood, or kill or steal, if you are confident and are not mean, what does it avail you to go to Gaya. Your well at home is also a Gaya.
The Buddha proclaimed a path free from all superstition and cruelty, that is, he made it impossible for his followers to behave in any way detrimental to the welfare of living beings by outlawing all oppression, spoliation and plunder.
The writer is a lay Buddhist and a Vocalist of a Rock Band called ‘No Name’.

Responsible government under Manipur state constitution act, 1947; Extra constitutional powers of the Dominion agent and the dewan

By- Dr. Kh. Ibochou Singh

Introduction
Prior to the advent of the British power in Manipur, the State had no constitution to govern the state authorities. The king was the seat of political powers. The administration was run on the wise counsel of the nobles with overriding power of the king. To be true, there was a system of absolute Monarchy. The establishment of a responsible government in Manipur under the Manipur State Constitution Act, 1947 was the result of prolonged strains on the part of the people of the state in their attempt to discard absolute Monarchy and adopt, in its place, a democratic constitutional Monarchy.
1.2 Administration Rules, limiting the powers of the state administrative agencies, were introduced consequent upon the British subjugation of the state after the Anglo Manipuri War in 1891. Since then, some sort of limited Monarchy emerged under the British suzerainty. However, there was no proper legislature. The Manipur State Darbar (the Darbar henceforth), which later became the Manipur State Council since 1 July, 1947, performed the combined functions of an advisory executive body and a legislature.
The Darbar acted as the judiciary as well before the establishment of the Chief Court in 1940. Such administrative practice continued till the framing and implementation of the Manipur State Constitution Act, 1947. However, the proper functioning of the Constitution was, at times, hampered by the calculated design of the Government of India in their pursuit to become the successor government after the lapse of British Paramountcy in India. It will be worthwhile to mention about the role played by Manipuri Nationalism in the process of the change.
2. Manipuri Nationalism Revitalized
The British occupation of Manipur showed n scene of domination and exploitation. The old Palace site, Kangla, had been converted into garrison for the British forces in Manipur. A large area of land in the heart of Imphal town, including Kangla, was declared ‘British reserve’ meant for settlement of the British Indian subjects in Manipur. The non-Manipuris, known as Foreigners’ controlled all the spheres of economic and political life of the State. The people of Manipur suffered such a sorry plight without any sort of protest for about three decades.
2.2 By 1920 the Manipuri Nationalism got revitalized. It had gathered spirit and strength to rise in protest openly against foreigner’s exploitation. In September, 1920 a peaceful agitation was launched by the people known as ‘Bazar Boycott’. The main slogans were: (i) Stop export of rice; (ii) Boycott all shops owned by foreigner’s for purchase and sale of goods: (iii) Reduce prices and stop looting the illiterate state subjects; etc.1 The agitators went to the extent of requesting the Maharaja for a separate market place for the state subjects. The movement subsided peacefully without any positive result as the Maharaja made an appeal on 19 Nov. 1920 to return to normal condition. But, the agitation proved a severe blow to the suppliers of rice from Imphal to military outposts outside the state.
2.3 The Nationalist feelings increased as time rolls by. The liberal policy of the Darbar had promoted expansion of education horizontal and vertical. The number of educated Manipuri citizens multiplied with a higher degree of political and social awareness among  the  people.  In  1928,  when  the  Indian  States  Committee
 (known as Butler Committee) was formed, the Darbar ventilated their wishes by adopting resolutions sharply reacting against the British Government’s arrangements in Manipur administration. The Darbar demanded:
(a) Restoration of possession of Kabo Valley to Manipur; (b) Retrocession of Kangla to the State of state use;
(c) Redemarcation of Manipur boundary according to existing records;
(d) Handing over of hill administration to the Maharaja;
(e) Maharaja’s decision in appeal and revision cases should not be subject to approval of the Political Agent;
(f) Appointment of permanent President of the Darbar;
(g) Removal of trade restrictions imposed by the Government of India; etc.2
At the time of adopting the resolution, the Darbar contended to place it before the Indian states Committee; but later on, changed mind and submitted it to the Government of India for consideration through proper channel. Unfortunately, the proposal could not get favorable recommendation from the local agents. Thus, there was no encouraging response from the Government of India in any of the items listed above.
2.4 The birth of the Nikhil Manipuri Hindu Mahasabha (later Nikhil Manipur Mahasabha) in May, 1934, accommodating members from Manipur and the adjoining states like, Assam, Burma, Cachar, Tripura, etc, further intensified the Nationalistic trend. Since 1938, apart from religious aspects, the Mahasabha took up political and social issues. The Mahasabha fought for removal of social evils like, Mangba-Sengba, Wakheisel, Chandan Selkhai, Dolaireng, etc., which were considered as evil practices at the whim of the Maharaja and the Brahmasabha. Side by side, the Mahasabha, been turned into a training ground for the inexperienced young British officers who were misfits if not trained in states like Manipur. The educated elites in the Darbar even challenged the competency of the superiority of the British officers to the local talents. They claimed that the qualified Sons of the soil should be given suitable appointments in the state services.3
3. Constitution Making Committee:
Drafting of the Constitution
During the period 1941 to 1946 there could not be much headway towards constitutiOfl31 reforms in Manipur due to a cluster of factors. Firstly, since 1938 the Government of India had declared that they would not pressurize the Indian Princes to introduce constitutional changes in the states. Secondly, Maharaja Sir Churachand Singh, during whose reign hectic discussions on the subject took place, had become inactive on health grounds; and he  died in Nov.1941.

His eldest son, Bodhachandra Singh, succeeded him in 1942. Thirdly, in May, 1942, Imphal, the capital of Manipur was bombed by Japanese War-planes; and subsequently, Manipur was converted into a war front between the Allied and the Axis powers during the Second World War. Nevertheless, the constitutional issue was revived in 1946.

3.2 On the demand of the Indian Peoples’ Conference, in Jan. 1946 the Chamber of Princes adopted resolutions to safeguard the civil and political rights of the people with full freedom of individuals in the states4. The Government of India instructed the British agents to see that democratic institutions were introduced in the states in line with the resolution of the Chamber of Princes, with sufficient provision for rights of the people in consideration of the impending lapse of British Paramountcy in India. Further, to accelerate the progress of democratization in Manipur, the Governor of Assam, while on tour to Manipur, also advised the Maharaja to take steps for introducing constitutional government in Manipur at the earliest5.

3.3 With a view to fulfilling the aspirations of the people and abiding by the instructions of the Governor of Assam, Maharaja Bodhachandra Singh issued orders for formation of a Constitution Making Committee on the principle of equal representation. The Committee was to comprise of 5 representatives of the valley, 5 members from the hills and 5 members from the Official side. The 5 representatives of the valley were to be elected while the rest were to be nominated. Of the 5 Officials, the Darbar was to send 3 including the President; Later Chairman of the Committee 1 from the Judiciary and 1 Maharaja’s nominee.6 Later on, one member from Jiribam and one for the Kabui Nagas were represented on the Committee. A democratic constitution integrating hill and valley administrations was contemplated.

3.4 It took time to give a final shape to the proposed constitution. There were differences of views between the Constitution Making Committee and the Maharaja on various items. The Maharaja wanted to induct a nominated Chief Minister in the new Government which the Committee opposed as it vitiated the democratic norm. The Maharaja pleaded for qualified franchise; while the Committee preferred universal adult franchise. The Maharaja advocated for a constituency limited to the people of that constituency alone; but the Committee stood for an open constituency. On the issue of transfer of power, the Maharaja wanted to transfer it dose by dose RR they gained experience, the Committee contended it should be done at a time as they were the peoples’ representatives. Thus, the Constitution could not be made ready by the expected time.

  1. Interregnum Arrangement

The Government of India considered the undue delay in implementing the Constitution as a deliberate move by the Maharaja to prolong his autocratic rule. To limit the powers of the Maharaja, a new rule, called Manipur State Administration Rule, 1947, was framed and introduced with effect from the 1st July, 1947. The hill and valley administrations were amalgamated. The Manipur State Darbar was changed into Manipur State council. The President of the Darbar was to be the head of the council as Chief Minister. There were six Ministers in the new Council: four from the valley and two from the hills, all nominated. The Maharaja was re- designated Maharaja in Council. The members of the darbar were made members in the new council. Side by side, other administrative laws namely, Manipur State Courts’ Act, 1947, Manipur State Appointment Board Rules, 1947, Manipur State (Administration) Regulation, 1947 ,etc. were introduced in Aug 1947.

4.2 The Interim Government in India was set up in Sept.1946 with Pandit Jawaharlal Nehru as the Prime Minister. In that line, there was a move in Manipur also for establishing an Interim Council. So an Interim Council was established in Manipur with two Officials, two Non Officials and two nominees from the hills. It took charge from the State Council on 14 Aug. 1947. The former Chief Minister, Mr. F.F. Pearson, being a British officer, was to leave Manipur on 15 Aug. 1947. In his place, Sri Priyobarta Singh was appointed Chief Minister in the Interim Council.

  1. Constitution implemented.

After a long tussle between the Maharaja and Constitution Making Committee ultimately there was a compromise. The Maharaja surrendered other items except that of nominated Chief Minister. The Committee, winning in all other items, yielded to the Maharaja on the item of nominated Chief Minister with this compromise, the Maharaja issued orders in Feb, 1948 implementing the Constitution called, Manipur State Constitution Act, 1947. Election to the State Legislative Assembly was held between 11 June, 1948 and 27 July, 1948. The ratio was to be 30 for the valley, 18 for the hills and 3 for the Muslims*. In addition to it, one from Commerce and one from Education were also represented; total number of elected members being 53 members. Sri P.C. Deb was appointed Returning Officer for the said election, Mr. T.C. Tiangkham was elected Speaker and Sri T. Bokul Singh, Deputy Speaker. A popular Council of Ministers comprising of one nominated Chief Minister, four ministers from the valley and two ministers from the hills was sworn in and took office with effect from 26 Nov. 1948. Sri M.K. Priyobarta Singh, the younger brother of Maharaja Bodhachandra Singh, was appointed Chief Minister of the new popular ministry.

5.2 The Manipur State Constitution Act, 1947, might be regarded as a democratic constitution establishing a responsible government, except the feature of a nominated Chief Minister. Questions were raised in the Legislative Assembly itself challenging the propriety of a nominated Chief Minister in a popular ministry. But, the answer was that it could not be undone so long as Rule 10 (d) of the said Constitution, which laid down appointment of the Chief Minister by the Maharaja, remained unamended.7 The Rule in question remained unaltered, though undemocratic, till the abrogation of the whole Constitution itself since October, 1949 consequent upon the implementation of the Merger Agreement signed on 21 Sept. 1949 taking effect from 15 October, 1949.

  1. Appointment of Dominion Agent and Appointment of Dewan.

It was made clear well ahead of the day of Transfer of Power that Manipur would have no link with the British Government of India after the passing and implementation of the Indian Independence Act, 1947. The stand of His Majesty’s Government was that with the lapse of British Paramountcy in India from 15 Aug. 1947, the British control over the Indian states would cease to operate. All sovereignty and powers surrendered by the states to the

Paramount Power would return to the states. The future relations of the states with successor Government of India should be settled by political arrangements arrived at through negotiations between the states and the successor Government of India.8

6.2 The successor Government of India under the Prime Minister ship of Pandit Nehru contended that the earlier relation between India and Manipur should continue even after the lapse of the British Paramountcy in India. During the days of partition of India, Prime Minister Nehru had declared that the Indian States

could not be regarded as Independent States after the lapse of Paramountcy in view of their geographical contiguity with the Indian territories and also from the point of Indian security.9 Accordingly, steps were taken to contain political autonomy of Manipur within the ambit of Indian suzerainty. Confidential instructions were issued to the Governor of Assam and the Government of Manipur on these lines. To make things doubly sure, an agreement was signed between the Maharaja of Manipur and the Governor of Assam on 2nd July, 1947 highlighting the future relation of Manipur with the Government of India and the Government of Assam, representing the Government of India.

6.3 The appointment of the Dominion Agent in Manipur was the aftereffect of the agreement of 2nd July, 1947 mentioned above. Since the transfer of power on 15 Aug. 1947, the political Agent in Manipur had ceased to function. The Dominion Agent was to step into the shoes of the Political Agent in Manipur. The Dominion Agent was to look after the relations between the Deminion of India and the State of Manipur. He had to safeguard the interests of the Government of India with the power to report any matter of importance to the Government of India. The Governor of Assam, as the Agent of the Government of India in that area, appointed the Dominion Agent. He would have the same powers and functions as enjoyed prior to 15 Aug. 1947 by the political Agent.10 Siri Deveswar Sharma of Assam was the first incumbent for the post of Dominion Agent at Manipur.

6.4 The appointment of Deveswar Sharma as Dominion Agent did not prove to be a good choice. Though there were allegations against him on certain political issues in the north east India, Sri Sharma was removed from office, without much detail, on the simple ground that the post was superfluous. The post of Dominion Agent was abolished simultaneously. The Governor of

6.5 After the abolition of the post of Dominion Agent, there was the necessity for posting one officer at Imphal to represent the Government of India. Taking advantage of Clause (d) of the Agreement, dated 2nd July, 1947, the Government of India opened the issue of appointing a Dewan by the Maharaja to aid and advises him, on behalf of the Government of India, in the administration. The Maharaja pointed out that such appointment would be violating the Constitution as there was no provision for it in the Constitution. He also expressed that he could not act without consultation and consent of the Council of Ministers. However as the Government of India had assured full protection against any eventuality, the Maharaja agreed to the proposal.12 At the outset, Sri M.K. Priyobarta Singh was appointed Dewan by the Maharaja. He functioned as the Chief Minister and Dewan.13 But., later on, the Government of India appointed Major General Rawal Amar Singh as the Dewan. He took over charge on 18 April, 1949. The position of the Dewan being unconstitutional, no specific powers and functions could be laid down. However, the Government of India coast rued that, as per terms of the agreement, the Maharaja was obliged to accept any advice of the Dewan in the name of good government in the state. The post of Dewann was abolished with the creation of the post of Chief Commissioner of Manipur on 15 Oct. 1949 as Manipur became a Centrally administered area since that day. Major General Rawal Amar Singh, the former Dewan, was appointed the first Chief Commissioner of Manipur.

Conclusion

Manipur State, which had an absolute Monarchy in the early days, switched over to a Constitutional Monarchy since 1948 with an elected responsible government. It was possible with the growth of political and social awareness due to the spread of education among the people. Manipuri Nationalism had played important role at different phases of Constitutional development. The only blot in that democratic government was the feature of a nominated Chief Minister. But, it was defended to be more democratic for the reason that not only the elected members but also the Maharaja were involved in the appointment of the Chief Minister as the Maharaja had to appoint the Chief Minister in consultation with the Council of Ministers.

The people did not raise objection to the appointment of the Dominion Agent taking him to be the normal representative of the successor government of India in Manipur. But, the appointment of the Dewan was very much controversial as it was violative of the Manipur State Constitution newly enforced. The role played by the Dewan was extra constitutional and extra territorial.

Interaction and collaboration between the elected leaders and the public is important for effective Governance: Minister K Shyam

DIPR
Imphal, Oct. 9,
Minister of CAF & PD, Revenue, Karam Shyam expressed that the State will develop if the public co-ordinate with the Government in minimizing and checking the mistakes of the politicians from the grassroots level to the top.
He was talking on the importance of constant interaction of the public with the elected leaders in order to propel the present society towards progress and development while gracing the Second Special Gram Sabha of Langthabal Mantrikhong Naorem Leikai Gram Panchayat  as Chief Guest at Keibung Oinam Leikai yesterday.
Pradhan of Langthabal Mantrikhong Naorem Leikai Gram Panchayat, Aheibam Sunanda; Zilla Parishad Member of Imphal West, Laishram Roshan and senior citizen and social worker, Laishram Ibohal also shared the dais with the Minister at the function as President  and Guests of Honour respectively.
Breifing media persons, Minister Karam Shyam drew the attention of the public to stop the bad habit of criticizing others and overlooking our own mistakes. “Lets stop blaming others, lets instead try to inculcate a sense of responsibility and work together by supporting and correcting each other”, he said.
Highlighting that the current political system needs change as it seems to favour the opportunists and victimize the timid and selfless altruists , he stated that there is need to change the election and political system to bring more transparency and better administration in the State.
Governance is a tough task that requires sacrifice and keeping the overall interest and welfare of the society above self-interest and personal gains, he also stated. He also expressed regret that the Direct Benefit Transfer schemes cannot still be fully actualized due to certain reasons, he said.
He also appealed the masses to collaborate and support with the elected leaders by acknowledging the significance of the Gram Sabha and to give whole-hearted public participation.
He also stated that the public should not stay as silent spectators to mob-lynching incidents and try render their civic duty if possible.
Zilla Parishad Member Laishram Roshan stressed that the basic reason hampering development is the shortage of funds due to the devolution of power and finance to them.
“At present, we get only 3% funds instead of 10% that the State finance should provide us.    MNREGA is going backward due to it”,   he stated.                                                                                                                 
Staff of Horticulture Department, Lenin Khwairakpam gave a briefing on the various schemes taken up by their Department, creation of water sources & Human Resource Development during the functions.
Primary Health Centre, Kakwa staff, N Roji also shared her expertise knowledge on making health cards using AADHAR cards for the disables and widows.
Members and ex-members of Langthabal Mantrikhong Naorem Leikai Gram Panchayat, senior citizens and its locals took part in the meetings  .                                                               

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Education Minister lays foundation stone for Govt. Engg. College & Model Residential School

DIPR
Imphal, Oct. 9

Education Minister Thokchom Radheshyam, yesterday, laid the foundation stones of Government Engineering College and Model Residential School at Khangarok, Heirok.
He said that the Model Residential School is being constructed under the Minority Concentrations Block. The Minister was speaking at the Foundation Stone laying Ceremony organized by the Department of Education. He said that out of seven residential schools to be constructed in Manipur for Thoubal district the school is being built at Heirok along with a hundred bedded hostels each.
Th. Radheshyam said that upgrading the Residential Schools from VIII to XII standard, especially meant for the girl child belonging to economically minority section of the society was proposed voicing the campaign of ‘Beti Bachao, Beti Padhao’ emphasizing on the need to let the students have complete minimum education of up to XII standard. He explained that thus the Residential schools have now been upgraded to class XII being approved by the Ministry of HRD, the students presently studying in IXth standard can study upto XII standard in the same school. In Manipur all the nine Residential Schools including eleven KGBV has been upgraded, he added. The Minister said that the HRD Minister Prakash Javadekar was also highlighted about the necessity of introducing another university in the State as the passing out number of students from colleges outnumbered the seat capacity of Manipur University. He explained that the Dhanamanjuri University and the Government Engineering College were both approved by the HRD Ministry after giving assurance and agreeing to the proposal of the Ministry that no issue will rise in regards to the land required for the construction of the institutions.
He said that both the educational institutions being introduced in Khangarok will not only boost educational competence of the area and Manipur as a whole but will also increase economic activities of the people of the surrounding villages. The college and the school being located at this far corner of the village will also lead to the development of the connecting route of the village to the location. For fast progress in the development of the institutions, the Minister sought the support and cooperation from the people for carrying out the construction and other infrastructural development work of the institutions.
Vice Chairman, Manipur Infrastructure Development Agency (MIDA), O. Lukhoi said that the Government of India is giving huge emphasis in education sector, the most important sector for the human resource development. He added that the college and the school are being provided as per the need and importance of the State.
Director Education (S), Th. Kirankumar Singh said that when the new college becomes fully functional, it will help the State’s inspiring students to pursue in the field of Engineering.
The Minister who is also the MLA of Heirok also assured the people that certain developmental works in relations to agriculture, fishery and connectivity will be taken in the village. The Foundation Stone Laying Ceremony organized by the Department of Education was attended by dignitaries, concerned officials of the Department of Education and locals.

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